A. Sabbath is "Saturday." - The Sabbath is as old as the creation of the world. Bereshiyt [Genesis] 2:2 establishes that the Sabbath as ordained by ELOHIM is on the seventh day of the week, the one which is called in the Gregorian (Roman) calendar "Saturday." (Gen. 2:2)
B. Sabbath is Holy.- Bereshiyt 2 Verse 3 Shows ELOHIM's attitude about the Sabbath -- He blessed it, and made it "holy" - va�y'qad�deish -- separated for Him. (Gen. 2:3)
C. Sabbath is one of ELOHIM's Moedim (appointed times/feats) (Lev. 23:1-3)
II. Requirements & Prohibitions (justice)
A. Sabbath is for rest.
(Lev. 23:3; Ex. 34:21; Ex. 16:21-30)
B. Remember the Sabbath and Keep it Holy
1. A Sacred Assembly is Required. A sacred Assembly is defined as a coming together of people for sacred purposes - i.e., worship of G-d.(Lev. 23:3)
a. The Nazarenes fulfilled this mitzvot by meeting in synagogues and reading the Torah on Shabbat.
C. No work is to be done on the Sabbath. The word used here which is translated into English as "work" is the Hebrew word m'law�khaw meaning "all and any kind of creative 'generative' endeavor, changes to the environment or any object." (Lev. 23:3; Ex. 34:21; Ex. 16:21-30). How do we define "work"? ELOHIM rested from creative activity on Shabbat (Gen. 2:1-3). In Is. 58:13-14 "work" on the Sabbath seems to mean "doing your will" or "doing your own ways" or "wording words." Thus resting from "work" on the Shabbat means to rest from creative activities and to rest from inflicting our own will on the universe. The word m'law�khaw (work) appears in Ex. 31:3 referring to the work of the artizans in building the tabernacle. This section is immediately followed by a reminder of the Shabbat (Ex. 31:12-17). It seems then that m'lawkhaw in Ex. 31:12-17 must include the meaning of m'lawkhaw in Ex. 31:3. Thus the activities involved in making the Tabernacle are among those not normally permitted on Shabbat. These iclude:
1. Preparation and cooking of food prohibited.
(Lev. 23:3; Ex. 34:21; Ex. 16:21-30)
2. Kindling a fire on the Sabbath is not permitted.
3. Carrying anything out of a "domain" is prohibited. "Domain" means your home/property, building/campus, etc. A walled city is considered a single domain.
D. Do Not Make (or allow) Others Work. Besides your not being allowed to work, you are prohibited from doing anything that will make the following people work. You are not to allow any of these to work:
* Your children
* Any employee or person who would serve you
(this includes any stranger who would serve you)
* Any animal you own.
* Any non-Jewish person in your home.
(Ex. 20:8-10; 23:12; Dt. 5:12-15)
III. When May the Shabbat be Loosed?(mercy)
A. In Matters of KHESED the Shabbat is Loosed. - The sacrifices are of greater weight than Shabbat (Lev. 23:37-38; Mt. 12:5-6) and KHESED is of greater weight that sacrifice (Hosea 6:6; Mt. 12:7). Therefore KHESED is of greater weight than Shabbat. Activities such as making clay (Jn. 9) and reaping (Mt. 12:1-8) are permitted on Shabbat if a matter of KHESED is involved.
1. Good deeds - One is loosed to perform "good" on Shabbat.
(Mt. 12:11-12=Lk. 6:9=Mk. 2:28)
a. One may loose his ox or his ass from the stall and lead him away to watering.
b. If a sheep falls into a pit on Shabbat one is loosed to lay hold on it, and lift it out.
(Mt. 12:11-12; Lk. 14:1-6)
c. On the Shabbat a man may be circumcised that the Torah not be broken.
d. The priests are loosed to sacrifice on Shabbat.
(Lev. 23:37-38; Mt. 12:5-6)
e. Healing is permitted on Shabbat - Since healing is of greater weight than the above "good deeds" healing is also permitted.
(Mt. 12:11-12; Lk. 13:10-17; Lk. 14:1-6; Jn. 7:21-24; Jn. 5:1-17; Jn. 9)
B. Shabbat May be Loosed for matters concerning "the knowledge of ELOHIM" - "The knowledge of ELOHIM is of greater weight than burnt offerings (Hosea 6:6) and burnt offerings are of greater weight than Shabbat (Lev. 23:37-38; Mt. 12:5-6). Therefore "the knowledge of ELOHIM" is of greater weight than Shabbat. Activities such as carrying are therefore permitted on Shabbat in matters pertaining to "the knowledge of ELOHIM" (Jn. 5:1-15). This would include such activities as driving to Shabbat services.