Nazarene Space

SPECIAL NOTE: This article originally appears with many footnotes. If anyone wishes to receive a footnoted copy please email me on


The content of this article meets a dire need within two ancient communities, one easily recognised and the other not so, to come together in open dialogue, not necessarily to convince the other of an argument, but show each their true identity. This work, Entitled, In Defence of Chabad is a bold step forward to this end. Before I embark on this endeavour, the identity of this author, in regard to his religious affiliation should be thoroughly laid upon the table to be scrutinised, lest he be accused of treason by his own brethren.

The Realignment of a Religious Identity

In the better part of the last two decades an ancient sect of believers has begun to re-emerge across the globe. They observe Torah, but are not Jews, they follow the Messiah of the New Testament, but are not Christians, and though they come from many different nationalities and cultures, they no longer consider themselves Gentiles, but Israelites; More specifically, Nazarene Israelites who see themselves as grafted in members of the Commonwealth of Israel. Who are these people and where are they found in the Bible?

Nazarenes or as they were known in Hebrew, “Natsarim” were a unique sect of Jews who believed that Yochannan HaMatbil (John the Immerser [Baptist] was the messenger sent to prepare the way for Moshiach according to Malachi 3:1; “‘See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his Temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come,’ says יהוה Almighty.”

The name “Nazarene” or Netsari (נוצרי) (singular), means “Offshoot Branch Watchman.” Specifically, the name refers to those who serve the one who sprang forth from “the root of Jesse.” Isaiah 11:1; “A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse ; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.”

Isaiah 4:2; “In that day the Branch of יהוה will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth will be the pride and the adornment of the survivors of Israel.”

Nazarene’s believed that Yahshua ben Yoseph HaNatzaret (aka Jesus) was the Moshiach foretold by the prophets, but they do not subscribe to Christianity’s interpretation of his persona, teaching or mission for reasons that will come to light in the course of this work.

“Nazareth, Can Anything Good Come out of There?”(John 1:46)

Messiah was also called a Nazarene according to Matthew 2:23; “And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.” Nazareth literally means “Town of the Watchman.” The town of Nazareth only received its name after the birth of Yahshua, when talk emerged that there was a man who resided in northern Galilee who was believed to be the offshoot branch of Jesse.

The comment in John 1:46; “Nazareth, can anything good come out of there?” supports the insignificance of this north Galilean town prior to Yahshua’s arrival. Yahshua’s parents didn’t want to rouse attention after having fled to Egypt to escape Herod’s evil decree, so they chose a town so unimportant that it fails to be mentioned before the commencement of their residency in any ancient record. Matthew 2:23’s “He shall be called a Nazarene” citation is from Isaiah 11:1; “…a branch (netzer) shall grow out of its roots (as an off-shoot)…”

The name “Nazarene Israelite” carries the declaration of a believer’s membership within the Commonwealth of Israel and his acknowledgement of Rebbe Yahshua ben Yoseph as Moshiach. This name gives an immediate frame of reference by instantly identifying this type of believer in accordance with Scriptural terminology.

The Natsarim had arisen in the time of Gamaliel the Elder. Gamaliel was a leading authority in the Sanhedrin and publicly spoke about this sect. The group gained notoriety through a handful of talmidim (disciples) who followed a controversial rabbi by the name of Yahshua ben Yoseph HaNazaret. Yahshua, who had taught in Galilee, was executed and rumoured to have resurrected and ascended into the heavens like Elijah. The Natsarim had been receiving a lot of converts, particularly from Gentile communities, which was causing quite a stir in Jerusalem. To add to the controversy a leading opponent of the sect, Rabbi Sha’ul of Tarsus (aka the Apostle Paul) would later become one of the most influential members of the movement. Sha’ul was educated at the feet of Gamaliel and even after his appointment to the sect, spoke highly of him in Acts 22:3; "I am a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city. Under Gamaliel I was thoroughly trained in the law of our fathers and was just as zealous for Elohim as any of you are today."

How the Jews Viewed the Early Natsarim

The Natsarim were not unanimously condemned as a heretical sect by all prominent Jews in Biblical times. Surprisingly, Gamaliel was not threatened by them, which is subtly evident in his carefully worded address to his fellow Jews as they protested Natsarim teaching.

“Then stood there up one in the council, named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, high in reputation among all the people, and commanded to put the apostles forth a little space and he said to them: ‘Take heed of yourselves what you intend to do as touching these men. For before these days rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves; he was slain, and all, as many as obeyed him, were scattered and brought to nought. After this rose up Judas of Galilee in the days of the taxing, and drew away much people after him; he also perished, and all, even as many as obeyed him, were dispersed. And now I say to you, refrain from these men, and let them alone, for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought: but if it be of Elohim, you cannot overthrow it, unless you are found even to fight against Elohim.’” (Acts 5:34-39)

In addition to Gamaliel’s reserved nature toward the sect, some Pharisees secretly recognised Yahshua’s authority and by default the legitimacy of the Natsarim as a movement.

Rav Nicodemon (Nicodemus), a Pharisee and a respected teacher of Israel privately confessed not only his, but his colleague’s support for the Natsarim when he came to Yahshua by night to receive clarification on a certain teaching. John 3:1-2; “Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council He came to Yahshua at night and said, "Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from Elohim. For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if Elohim were not with him." Later, after Yahshua’s execution, Rav Nicodemon appeared again, this time, with another supporter of Yahshua, a councilor of the Sanhedrin by the name of Yoseph HaHarimathea (Joseph of Arimathea) to prepare Yahshua’s corpse for burial in John 19:39; “He (Yoseph HaHarimathea) was accompanied by Nicodemus, the man who earlier had visited Yahshua at night. Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds.”

Early Christian View of the Natsarim

Early Church writings concerned with the Natsarim clearly show their complete objection to the movement. Amid the writings of Epiphanius of Salamis, a prominent early church father, is perhaps the most accurate account of the general Christian perception of the movement. Though this account has a negative tone toward the faith it nonetheless perfectly captures their identity. So for this reason I think it only befitting to add their sentiments (Also note the blatant reference to the Book of Matthew’s original Hebrew written origin.):

But these sectarians... did not call themselves Christians--but "Nazarenes," ...however they are simply complete Jews. They use not only the New Testament but the Old Testament as well, as the Jews do... they have no different ideas, but confess everything exactly as the law proclaims it and in the Jewish fashion-- except for their belief in messiah, if you PLEASE! For they acknowledge both the resurrection of the dead and the divine creation of all things, and declare that G-d is one, and that his son is Y'shua the Messiah. They are trained to a nicety in Hebrew. For among them the entire Law, the Prophets, and the... Writings... are read in Hebrew, as they surely are by the Jews. They are different from the Jews, and different from Christians, only in the following. They disagree with Jews because they have come to faith in Messiah; but since they are still fettered by the Law--circumcision, the Sabbath, and the rest-- they are not in accord with Christians.... they are nothing but Jews.... They have the Goodnews according to Matthew in its entirety in Hebrew. For it is clear that they still preserve this, in the Hebrew alphabet, as it was originally written. (Epiphanius; Panarion 29)

Natsarim and Non-Natsarim Jews Co-Existed

Natsarim adhered to the observance of Torah as it was taught by the Scribes and the Pharisees, but they held the belief that Yahshua benYoseph HarNazaret (Joshua [Jesus] the son of Joseph of Nazareth) was the Messiah spoken about by the prophets of the TaNaK (Old Testament). Later, Rabbi Sha’ul HaShliach was accused of being a ringleader of this Nazarene sect in Acts 24:5; “For we have found this man a plague, a creator of dissension among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of Nazarenes.” By the Book of Acts thousands of Jews and Gentiles were being added to the Ekklesia (“called out congregations”) daily (Acts 2:41-47; 4:4, 6:7; 9:31). Such was the impact of Yahshua’s teachings and actions that not long after his death and ascension, his own brother, Rav Yakov HaTzaddik (James the Just) was appointed as head over the Sanhedrin and a significant portion of Priests who served in the Temple also became associated with the sect. “…and the number of Talmidim multiplied greatly in Jerusalem and a great many of the Kohanim (priests) were obedient to the faith” (Acts 6:7). This passage exhibits very solid evidence in the Brit Chadashah (New Testament) that the faith of the Messiah and the Shlichim (Apostles) was not that far removed from Pharisaic Judaism. If it were, no priests would have in any way been involved with the movement. Unfortunately the fraudulent addition of the word “church” (Kirke/Circe), which denotes a particular Greco-Roman version of the faith included in many Bible translations has robbed many readers of seeing a clear picture of what was really going on at the time. Reading The Book of Acts with Christian eyes will usually fail to see the Natsarim co-existing alongside mainline Judaism of the day, even if it was only for a comparatively short time. When a Christian reads the fraudulently added word “church” in his Bible this shifts him from seeing the emergences of a sect and instead he sees the formation of a new religion.

A Nazarene Israelite is not a Christian! This is because Christianity denotes a Greco-Roman centred version of the faith that retains its full Gentile identity. To stay a Gentile, puts one in a state of “having no hope” according to Ephesians 2:11-12; “Therefore remember that you, once Gentiles in the flesh, who are called uncircumcised by what is called the circumcised made in the flesh by hands that at that time you were without Moshiach, being aliens from the Commonwealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope and without Elohim in the world.”

To embrace the Greco-Roman version of the faith is to directly renounce the three core pillars of the faith outlined in Isaiah 56:6; “And foreigners who bind themselves to יהוה serve him, to love the Name of יהוה, and to worship Him, all who keep the Sabbath without desecrating it and who hold fast to My covenant.” Christian theology replaces the names “Yahshua” and “יהוה” with “Jesus” and “G-d,” rejects the Sabbath, and teaches that the old covenant was replaced by a new one. In actual fact there are many covenants in Scriptures that absorb one another and build from one to the next. At no time does one covenant cancel, replace or even supersede a former covenant .

A Nazarene Israelite is someone who observes Torah with the knowledge of its realised identity in Messiah Yahshua. He does this with the understanding that no piece of the Torah has been abolished, marginalised or altered. Matthew 15:17-20; “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Torah until everything is accomplished. Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the Torah, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven."

Confirmation of Messiah’s devotion to Torah in accordance with its observance in Spirit and preceded by the fear of Elohim is confirmed in Isaiah 11:2-5; “The Spirit of יהוה will rest on him--the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of יהוה – and he will delight in the fear of יהוה. He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he hears with his ears; but with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. Righteousness will be his belt and faithfulness the sash around his waist.”

It is of the utmost importance to establish that Messiah and Torah are not two different things, nor do they represent a transition of one thing into another. They are both one in their origin, journey and destination. John1:1-4; “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Elohim, and the Word was Elohim. He was with Elohim in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the light of men.” Messiah did take on a temporal flesh bound state so that he could share in our trials and win a decisive battle by covert action according to John 1:14; “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of unmerited power and truth.” But this flesh state was not the origin of Messiah; Messiah was around from the very beginning. John 1:10; "He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him."

The Messiah’s credentials and some specifics events in his ministry, including his trials and rejection, are well documented in the TaNaK. 2 Samuel 7:12; “When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom.”
Jeremiah 23:5; "’The days are coming,’ declares יהוה, ‘when I will raise up to David a righteous Branch, a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land.’”

Isaiah 53:3; “He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like one from whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.”

Rebbe Yahshua who the majority of the world call Jesus is the most lied about man in human history. Not until a significant Hebraic shift occurs in the presentation of this man’s identity and teaching can the Jewish world enter into an honest investigation into his candidacy as Moshiach. It would be heresy for the Jews to accept Yahshua as Messiah if it was in the current persona currently portrayed by the Church.

A Nazarene Israelite’s Biggest Theological Challenge

Today, the majority of Nazarene Israelites are being birthed from Christian circles. As such many are being challenged with the process of joining Moshiach to the Torah. Merging the two is probably one of the biggest hurdles facing someone who has come out of a “Torah has been done away with” religious system. For example there are issues regarding flesh circumcision, the death penalty, eating kosher foods, the value of learning the Hebrew language, animal sacrifice and even issues regarding family purity laws. There is so much for leaders in this movement to contend with that there is almost no end to the challenges they face. This is compounded by the fact that many leaders are untrained themselves and have far less knowledge than the average 10 year old Jewish child. I have also observed the character trait of pride have its fatal effect on leaders which has added to this already difficult climate.

Part of a Nazarene Israelite’s walk should consist of shedding those things that made him feel different from a Jew, both in his theology and conduct, and embracing a service that incorporates worship in both spirit and truth. For the Jew, the concept of embracing Yahshua is more a question of recognising identities rather than a theological shift or lifestyle change. If an Orthodox Jew was to investigate Yahshua’s credentials in a Hebraic light, his candidacy as Moshiach would be overwhelming as he realises very little of his current lifestyle would have to change.

On the other hand, if a Christian accepts that Yahshua did not abolish the Torah, something akin to brain surgery has to take place. Praise be to HaShem, that through the Spirit this is easily achievable to the believer who exudes a bondless energy and unwavering enthusiasm for the truth.

Who is Really to Blame for the Jew’s Rejection of Messiah?

The author of this article is a Nazarene Israelite, and Yah willing, will be so until he is called home, and therefore he (and anyone else who claim this title) will be viewed by the majority of the Orthodox Jewish community, in particular, the Lubavitch movement , as somewhat of an oddity at best and a threatening heretic at worst. Why then would such a person, set about writing an article entitled, “In Defence of Chabad?”

The answer to this question will hopefully become clear as we explore certain characteristics within this community, that while they do not except our Messiah would have me killed if a fully Torah observant nation (with a Temple and Sanhedrin) were established today. Interestingly, it is worth pondering where the fault truly lies in this non-acceptance of Messiah Yahshua in light of his Greco-Roman Torah breaking persona that has been carefully cultivated by a false religious institution. Unfortunately, this institution still receives patronage by some who call themselves Nazarene Israelites. This climate indirectly thwarts a genuine re-examination of Yahshua by the Jewish community because it misleadingly portrays us as having an association with the Church. Nazarene Israelites who continue to spend some time in the midst of their former religious environment hamper and undermine the valuable work of precious men and women in our faith who work tirelessly to teach new believers the enormous distinctions that separate us from Christianity. But this is another issue. For now, the anti-rabbinical outlook that pervades the Nazarene Israelite movement, which is personified in some vicious verbal criticisms on the beliefs and practices of Chabad, must be addressed!

There are many attacks that have gone on against Chabad from the Nazarene Israelite camp, which by the way is still very much in its formative stage and in no position to cast dispersion, masked as criticism, at any Torah observant Jewish community, let alone an Ultra-Orthodox one. I have heard unsubstantiated criticism over and over again, almost to the point that if I was not sure of the love in the hearts of the ones speaking it, that I would construe it as anti-Semitism! These pot shots (and that’s all they are) disturb me all the more in light of the accused having survived centuries of vicious persecution and existing today as an example of Torah observance to the Lost Sheep of the House of Israel. For without their continued existence, mankind would have been lost, having no living examples of Torah observance to learn from.

Instead of criticising Chabad, there should be a respectful desire to learn about it and find ways of opening up lines of communication.

The teachings of Chabad are, for the most part, shrouded in mystery and regarded with a level of suspicion beyond that of mainline Orthodox Judaism by the majority of Nazarene centered Torah observers. The majority of this demographic are made up of nearly 99% ex-Christians who like anyone coming from a different religious background have their fare share of old doctrinal baggage to contend with. This doesn’t help, when making judgments on Jewish practices, because the accuser is usually not well acquainted enough with his relatively new religious environment to point the finger at what is or isn’t permissible. The main difficulty the ex-Christian new born Nazarene Israelite has is readjusting to a lifestyle that while it still uses the same Bible, promotes a walk that has no line of religious demarcation making, every act of a person’s daily life an opportunity to serve HaShem. A newly born again believer who has grafted himself into the Commonwealth of Israel shouldn’t have time to be complaining or criticising another group because the amount of catching up he has to do with the Torah, the covenants, the festivals and the Hebrew language, should keep him pretty busy.

What is ChaBaD?

Today Chabad is the largest Chasidic movement that exists within Orthodox Judaism. A “Chasid” (singular) means “piety” and “Chasidism” (plural) means “pious ones.” The word “piety” comes from the Latin “pietas,” which means “devout” or “good.” The Hebrew rendering, “Chasid,” particularly refers to religious devotion acted upon through the character traits of virtue and humility. Another definition of the word “Chasidic” is “Ultra-Orthodox,” though this term is not favoured by its members because it promotes them to be viewed as extremists.

The name Chabad is an acronym for the Hebrew words, Chocmah (Wisdom), Binah (Understanding) and Da’at (Knowledge). These three principles are the core pillars that underpin this movement’s approach to the service of HaShem. In other words, it is the service of HaShem governed by one’s intellect, whilst at the same time subduing the wayward and sweeping movements of the heart. It is the function by which the mind is elevated over emotion, which allows the heart to conform to the will of the mind, which alone grasps and comprehends the greatness of HaShem and His will. It is with the mind that one can contemplate the enormity of HaShem and allow the fear of heaven to be evoked, which in turn leads to the beginning of Divine wisdom. Psalms 111:10; “The fear of יהוה is the beginning of wisdom; all who follow His precepts have good understanding. To him belongs eternal praise.”

Proverbs 9:10; "The fear of יהוה is the beginning of wisdom, and knowledge of the Set-Apart One is understanding.”

Luke 10:27; He (Yahshua) answered: "'Love יהוה your Elohim with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind'; and, 'Love your neighbour as yourself.'"(
Here Yahshua is quoting Deuteronomy 6:5)

Chabad teach that only by contemplating the greatness of HaShem with the mind can one truly allow the heart to be fixated in like manner. By utilising the mind to deeply contemplate HaShem’s enormity, the thoughts of the mind and the meditations of the heart cease to work contrary to one another but unify in their intention to give two-fold support to every physical action. The concept that HaShem only sees and judges the heart, when an action falls short dissolves in the face of this principle, which aligns perfectly with Torah and Scripture in general. HaShem does not judge an individual by the righteous meditation of his heart if he performs deliberately contrary actions. Indeed the entire history of Israel would be completely absent of stories in which men and women refused to bow down to idols in the face of torture and death if this were the case. Mordechai would have bowed down to Haman in the story of Esther if he knew that HaShem placed greater concern over an individual’s heart. Indeed, because of his choice to refrain from the physical act of bending forward reverently to a mere human, he endangered the entire community of Israel, yet is action was never criticised among the Sages. Similarly, the Messiah would have certainly side-stepped his beatings and execution if one’s conduct and action was not of supreme importance to HaShem

Ezekiel 24:24; “‘I יהוה have spoken. The time has come for me to act. I will not hold back; I will not have pity, nor will I relent. You will be judged according to your conduct and your actions, declares the Sovereign יהוה.’”

Ezekiel 18:30; “‘Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, each according to his conduct,’ declares יהוה Elohim. ‘Repent and turn away from all your transgressions, so that iniquity may not become a stumbling block to you.’”

Ezekiel 36:19; “Also I scattered them among the nations and they were dispersed throughout the lands. According to their ways and their deeds I judged them.”

1 Peter 1:17; “Since you call on a Father who judges each man's work impartially, live your lives as strangers here in reverent fear.”

Romans 2:6; “Elohim will give to each person according to what he has done." So we see that the principle teaching within Chabad (exhibited in its very name) is completely compliant with not only the Torah and the Prophets, but the teachings in the Brit Chadashah (The New Testament) as well.

Chabad is also interchangeably referred to as the “Lubavitch Movement” named so after the name of the Russian town of Lyubavichi, where one of the first Chabad Yeshivas (Houses of Study) was established. The movement was founded in the late 18th century by Shnneur Zalman of Liadi (aka the Alter Rebbe) in Belarus in Eastern Europe, then part of Imperial Russia under the Tsars.

The Attacks Defended – The False Alligation of Praying to the Dead

Sincere believers frequently thrust themselves into the position of the accusing Pharisees in Yahshua’s day when they criticise some practices of the Chabad movement without first embarking on significant research concerning their activities. One such criticism is the act of necromancy (i.e., praying to the dead).

While it is customary to pray within the vicinity of the remains of a deceased Tzaddik (righteous one), unless a Nazarite vow is in progress, it is not permissible to direct one’s prayers directly to them or any other deceased person! states the following concerning such a tradition: “The rabbis were apprehensive that frequent visiting to the cemetery might become a pattern of living thus preventing the bereaved from placing their dead in proper perspective. They wanted to prevent making the grave a sort of totem, at which the mourner would pray to the dead rather than to (Elohim), and thereby be violating one of the cardinal principles of Judaism: that (Elohim) is One and that there are no intermediaries between a man and his (Elohim).”

Furthermore, regarding one’s conduct for prayer at a gravesite the following is written from the same official website: “Much care must be taken to direct one's personal prayers at graveside to (Elohim). To pray to the deceased, or to speak directly to him in the form of prayer, borders on blasphemy. It is sheer necromancy, outlawed by the Bible (Deut. 18, 11) along with sorcerers, soothsayers and enchanters.”

Necromancy, more specifically, is the act of consulting with the dead. This practice, usually engaged in by most Gentiles who have lost loved ones is not endorsed within Rabbinic Judaism or within the Ultra Orthodox ChaBaD movement by any means. When a mourner stands at a gravesite and innocently asks, “Why did you leave me?” familiar spirits (literally “family spirits”) are able to latch onto unsuspecting victims by impersonating the deceased loved one with a response that commences a lifetime of comforting deception. One of the reasons the possessed demonomaniac (that Messiah Yahshua encountered [Mark 5:1-20]) resided in a cemetery was because such places contain massive numbers of disembodied spirits who hope to attach to confused mourners. For the believer going to the gravesite of a Tzaddik to pray in his or her vicinity there is no chance of inviting impostors into their lives (no matter what number of spirits are in residence there). However, it must be stated that lingering any longer than necessary in a cemetery is not recommended.

Those who wish to level accusations at the Chabad for praying at the gravesites of Tzaddiks might want to review a core reason why Miriam (Merry Magdalene) and four other women went to Yahshua’s tomb…Yes, they went to see if he had risen and to anoint his body with oil, but their visit would have been customarily accompanied with prayers and blessings. When an Orthodox Jew goes to visit the tomb of a Tzaddik, he or she is also taught to go there with the expectation that the Tzaddik’s body may have been lifted up. Would anyone accuse Ezekiel of talking to the dead or practicing Necromancy when he prophesied to dry bones? No of course not!! Accusers of Necromancy by Chabad speak with planks in their eyes and inadvertently sound like the very same Pharisees that Yahshua rebuked.

Orthodox Jews have a genuine belief that Tzaddiks will one day raise from their graves like they did on mass in Matthew 27:51-5 and to be present with a loved one when this happens would be overwhelmingly joyful. Yes, at this time the Chabad movement reject what we are saying and doing, but this is because the majority of us are still sounding like Christians.

(See Part 2 for a continuation of this article)

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