Nazarene Space

Messianic Judaism or Nazarene Judaism: Are they the same?

Some have asked about the relationship between Messianic Judaism and Nazarene Judaism, the following in an excerpt from a teaching given at our first conference NETZARIM '99 in 1999 by Rav Mikhael:

I believe the central issue that we need to address is one of identity. With whom do we identify, or, as I have heard it poignantly stated before, with whom will we be persecuted? Many people who hear of us and what we are doing will identify us with the Messianic Jewish Movement (I have experienced this many times) and by doing so they place us under the heading of ‘Christianity’. Both Jews and Christians who are knowledgeable enough usually make this identification. We need to ask ourselves whether this is the banner under which we want to develop our identity.

Let’s look at the Messianic Jewish Movement for a moment. Many of us are familiar with it and some of us are still involved with it to some degree. The following discussion is about the popular notion of what the Messianic Jewish movement is all about and how it describes and understands itself as exemplified by the Messianic Jewish Alliance, The Messianic Union, related organizations and their leaders. Regardless of what may be their deepest desire, which is to be regarded as a valid expression of Judaism, just as the Orthodox or Reform movements are, they are not and they never will be. Because in their attempt to do so, they have kept one foot firmly planted within the Christian community. A large part of their theology and worldview come from Christianity. While they do reject replacement theology and so make room for themselves as Jews within the Christian community, they have not, in most cases, developed practices and institutions endemic to Judaism. As such there are some fundamental problems with the Messianic Jewish Movement’s understanding of things and this results in confusion and disunity.

One of the first areas of confusion is that of religious expression. First, allow me to say that there is a wide spectrum of religious practice among Messianic Jews and their congregations, which, in itself, is a problem. Some congregations are adopting Orthodox or Hasidic practices and others have kept mainstream church worship traditions. Ultimately, in the Messianic Jewish point of view, there are no standards because there is no right and wrong in religious expression. Allow me to explain how I can come to such a conclusion. While many Messianic Jews and even some Christians know that Passover and Yom Kippor are Scriptural and Christmas and Easter are not, there can be no authoritative correction (although the Christians will sometimes accuse those who follow Scriptural religious traditions of being legalists and Judaizers!). This is because Messianic Jews see themselves as part of the ‘church’ and they look at Christians as their brothers and because of this they accept, to a greater or lesser degree, the Christian interpretation of Scripture. They are all part of the ‘body’, the Messianic Community, the universal Church. The result of this is the practical understanding that G-d does not really care that most of ‘the body’ are worshipping Him according to the practices of the pagans (Deut 12) or the ‘Traditions of men’ and while He may be pleased that some are worshipping Him according to Torah, it was really only meant for ‘ethnic’ or ‘natural’ Israel. In the great scheme of things it doesn’t really matter because ‘we’re all saved’, which is the ultimate goal of both groups. I have read this described as the ‘One faith, one baptism, two expressions’ theory. One cannot do enough Scriptural gymnastics to support such an idea. To do so is to ignore all the warnings of Moshe and the Prophets about the adoption of pagan practices and of the corruption of the pure religion YHVH had given to the people of Israel. It supports the spoken and unspoken assumption of the ‘church’ that the ‘Old Testament’ isn’t relevant to them. It is also to embrace the absurd idea that Shimon Kefa and that great Pharisee Rav Sha’ul accepted Gentiles into the community of Israel while allowing them to continue to practice paganism. That they allowed pagans to rename pagan practices and celebrate them with equal validity alongside the festivals of YHVH and see nothing wrong with it. That Gentiles could come into covenant relationship with the G-d of Israel while thumbing their noses at all the things those who had gone before held dear. That they believed the Messiah had come to give ready acceptance to both Jews and Gentiles in the small, unique community of Remnant Israel, regardless of their behavior or the forms of their religious expression. Anyone who wants to become part of the commonwealth of Israel through the Messiah does so in the context of covenant. And covenants have stipulations that are meant to be adhered to and if they are not, there are negative consequences. For Messianic Jews to look at and accept Christians as equally acceptable brothers ‘in the Lord’ and as legitimate ‘converts’ into the commonwealth of Israel is to destroy the basis for the covenant relationship G-d has always had with His people.

This brings us to another problem with Messianic Judaism. They don’t know what to do with the Gentiles. The confusion again results from having one foot in either camp. On the one hand, they want to see themselves as a legitimate branch of Judaism and to this end, they have set up many institutions in which the leadership and policy bodies are made up of ethnic Jews (although in Messianic Judaism the definition of an ‘ethnic Jew’ does not usually follow ‘traditional’ halachah). However, many Gentiles have become attracted to Judaism, as has been the case throughout history, and a brand of Judaism that allows them to maintain their belief in their Messiah is particularly attractive. Many Christians have come to see the value in understanding the jewishness of their original faith and some have even been motivated to adopt some Jewish practices. And others, like many of us, have seen the value of Torah as the correct way of life for the redeemed person and have sought to apply it all to the best of our knowledge and understanding. But when a Gentile comes into Messianic Judaism they find out that their participation is limited to the perimeter. In the MJAA they are not allowed full membership. They are not ordained as Rabbis. There is no mechanism or procedure to allow a Gentile’s full participation in the institutions of Messianic Judaism.

In Non-Messianic Judaism, this is accomplished through the conversion process. After a Gentile has gone through this process they are members of the House of Israel, no different than their natural born counterparts, with all the same privileges and responsibilities. Messianic Judaism, on the other hand, does not see the need for conversion. The Gentile Christians are already their brothers, fellow heirs in the body of Messiah. Why would they need to convert? In many Messianic synagogues, Jews and Gentiles alike are encouraged to pray the ‘sinners prayer’ at which time they enter the ‘Church’. The Jew and the Gentile take divergent paths from there, however. Once they come into the ‘Church’ they have different responsibilities and duties. In the Messianic synagogue, Judaism is practiced to some degree. The Gentile is sent to a church with different practices. He can visit the synagogue but it not really there for him, regardless of what he thinks. So the Gentile on whom G-d has impressed the importance of Torah and Judaism finds himself in limbo. While the Messianic Jews see him as a ‘brother in Messiah’ he is held at arms length due to an accident of birth. It seems as though the Messianic Jewish ‘denomination’ is a ‘Jews only’ club.

Another problem is Messianic Judaism is ambivalent about Torah. Since it seems as though Messianic Judaism is another Christian denomination of sorts, they have sought to pour the wine of Christianity into the wineskin of Judaism. Outwardly, many of their practices are Jewish. They wear tallit when they worship and they worship on Shabbat. They celebrate many of the festivals and they wear kippot. Some synagogues even have Torah scrolls and a few of the congregants can read it. But inwardly, most of their theology and belief is Christian. Their creeds, their understanding of the Messiah, the nature of God, salvation and especially their attitude and understanding of the Mosaic covenant come from Christianity. They don’t know how important it is. On one hand, they’re Jewish so they know, at some level, it is important to them. On the other hand, their brothers, the Christians, don’t obey the mosaic covenant at all. In fact, they have adopted many practices of the pagans, something the terms of the covenant prohibit. But they are ‘saved’ just the same. Yet, both the Messiah and His Talmidim taught about the importance of Torah and lived it out in their lives. And these are the acknowledged founders of the ‘church’. But the ‘church’ has taught for almost two thousand years that Torah is not essential for salvation, it is not important in a believer’s life and may even be an impediment to the Christian drawing closer to G-d. So if it’s not essential to salvation, Messianic Judaism cannot, with any real authority, require, or even strongly encourage, Torah obedience among it’s adherents. Christian understanding says Torah is not important so as long as Messianic Judaism remains in the Christian camp, Torah obedience will just be one option of acceptable Christian religious expression among many. It will be a means to an evangelistic end and will continued to be looked at with suspicion (and rightly so) by non-messianic Jews.

So what am I saying here. I’ve thrown out a a lot of terms here; salvation, Torah, Israel, Messiah, Church, Jew, Christian and others common in our religious debate. The definition of these terms is something that we need to discuss as well. Messianic Judaism has adopted, for the most part, a Christian understanding of these terms and many of us, having been brought up in a Christian environment, still think that way as well. As such, it would be easy to conclude from my statements that I believe Torah, the Law, is essential for salvation and all the Christians are going to hell. Taking salvation, Israel and Torah, understanding them in the common Christian sense and combining them as I have, it would be easy to come to that conclusion. Nothing could be farther form the truth however. One does not have to be part of the ‘commonwealth of Israel’, remember the Sabbath, abstain from pork or celebrate the festivals to receive a place in the world to come (See Israel, the Goyim and the Eternal Destiny of Man for more info here). That is another issue completely but it illustrates the point that if we are going to understand Scripture in a consistent matter, we cannot blindly accept Christianity's definition of these terms for they have a different meaning in Judaism.

Ultimately, the question which we must have the courage to face and answer is, ‘are Christianity and Judaism compatible at all?’ Messianic Judaism has said yes and attempted to make the marriage work and we have looked at the results. I believe there are fundamental differences between Judaism and Christianity in theology, practice and in the religious communities themselves which require a negative answer to the question. Christianity evolved as a reaction against Judaism and the Jewish people around the period of the first Jewish war with Rome. It proscribed Jewish practices more vehemently than did the Roman government. It began to understand the Scriptures through the eyes of Plato and Aristotle instead of Moshe and the prophets. They stole the Sacred Scriptures and made them simply a preface to their own and then redacted themselves into them to create a sense of legitimacy. They changed the Messiah from a Torah obedient Jewish man Who loved His people to a universal, anti-Torah demigod. And once they had the machinery of the state at their disposal, they rigorously persecuted the true people of G-d, something that continues to this day. Judaism is a triad of Torah, people and land put together by G-d Himself never to be forsaken or replaced. Christianity has proscribed the Torah for it’s adherents, persecuted the people and moved the promised land to the heavenlies. How can there be any perceived continuity between the two? Judaism holds dear everything Christianity abhors. Christianity is a man made religion, a combination of Roman and Babylonian religion, Greek philosophy and some basic Jewish ethics (although with all the murder and mayhem perpetuated in the name of ‘Christ’, the last point could certainly be disputed). Christianity has taken some basic truths and ideas, removed their foundation and created a new religion. To put Judaism back into Christianity is to put a square peg in a round hole. When we present Nazarene Judaism to Christians, we are not educating them about the roots of their faith, we are showing them the truths of the Scriptures they claim. Christianity is not a form of Judaism, it doesn’t even spring from the same well.

What is the well from which Christianity sprung? It was the well of Roman and Alexandrine anti-Semitism (used in the modern sense of the word), it was the well of gnosticism and the dualism endemic to Greek philosophy, it was the well of Babylonian and Roman religious practice and culture. Let’s take a brief look at all of these.

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Comment by James Trimm on May 30, 2009 at 8:49pm
One Faith, Two Expression Theology
(an excerpt from my book Nazarene Theology)

The Systematic theology of the "One Faith Two Expression" theology or "Two Torah" Theology is the theology of much of Messianic Judaism including the majority of the IAMCS and the UMJC.

Two Torah Theology maintains that the "Church" or "Body of Messiah" is made up of two two groups who are united together in one body. The two Groups are Messianic Jews and Gentile Christians. Stern illutsrates this theology on page 46 of his Messianic Jewish Manifesto with a circle graph. The graph shows the "Church" and "Jewish People" (Israel) as two overlapping circles. The area of the overlap is labled "Messianic Jews". The chart also places some dots in the "Church" circle but outside the overlap with the "Jewish People" cicle and lables this "Jews who are saved and freely choose to express their faith in a non-Jewish context."

Stern then writes:

"...the small circle represents the Jews and the large circle the Church, but now they overlap. The intersection of the two circles represents Messianic Jews. ...the remainder of the Church circle represents Gentile Christians."
(Messianic Jewish Manifesto p. 46)

Later in the same book Stern writes:

"The Messianic Jew has two non-neurotic roles to play in the Church. ...the issues raised in this book need to be brought to the attention of all in the Church, Gentile Christians as well as Messianic Jews. ... The second role he has to play is being insrumental in fostering Jewish evangelism, helping the Church..."
(ibid p. 71)

In his book Jewish Roots Daniel Juster has a similar illustration for this same theology. Juster first illustrates the Dispensationalist view with three circles which do not overlap at all which he lables "Jews" "Church of former Jews & Gentiles" and "Gentiles" (p. 35). He then gives his own correction of this view with an illustration of three circles, with each of the two outside circles overlapping with the circle in the middle. The two outer circles are labled "Israel" and "Gentiles" while the middle circle is labled "The Church". This results in two groups in "The Church" which Juster calls "Jewish followers of Yeshua" (i.e. Messianic Judaism" and "Gentile followers of Yeshua" (i.e. Gentile Christianity).

One Faith Two Expression Theology teaches that Messianic Judaism and Gentile Christianity are simply two culturally different expressions of the one true faith. This theology maintains that only Messianic Jews are obligated to observe the Mosaic Torah while Gentile Christians are not obligated to observe Torah. Stern asks:

"...observance of the Torah, as it applies to Jews, is not a condition for the salvation of a Gentile. ...can faith in God and his Messiah transcend Jewish culture? Can a Gentile become a Christian without also becoming a Jew?"
(JNT Commentary p. 273)

Now in truth "observance of the Torah" is not a "condition for the salvation" for anyone, however Stern's point seems to be to pose the question of whether Gentiles should observe Torah. Stern answers the question later in his commentary:

"...Gentiles do not have to become Jews in order to believe in Jesus... This point, irrelevant for Jews and therefore not part of the Gospel as it was presented to them, is essential for Gentiles; because it removes a major barrier, namely, the requirement, in addition to trusting God and the Good News, that Gentiles should leave one culture and join another... because when a Gentile allows himself to be circumcised, he obligates himself to obey the entire Torah..."
(JNT Commentary pp. 526-527)

One Faith Two Expression theology teaches that when Gentile Christians observe Sunday as their weekly day of worship, celebrate Christmans and Easter and eat porkchops thats culturally apropriate for them and when Messianic Jews observe the Sabbath, keep Biblical Jewish festivals and eat kosher thats culturally apropriate for us. Stern writes:

"Gentile believers are free to observe or not to observe rules about dining and Jewish holidays..."
(JNT Commentary p. 610)

Regarding Sunday worship Juster writes:

"...Sabbath is a day of crucial significance to Jewish identity. The principle of weekly rest, worship and renewal is one of universal significance. In this sense, the Sabbath principle is a spiritual and humanitarian guide for all peoples. Christians are free to incorporate this principle on Sunday or other days. The seventh day Sabbath for Israel is a special central sign of thr Covenant between Israel and God."
(Jewish Roots p. 195)

Even the FFOZ publication Take Hold says:

"There is nothing wrong with worshipping on Sunday. There is nothing biblically wrong with going to a place of worship on a Sunday and becoming as much involved as one desires.... It [the Sabbath] can be honored fully, even if one worships on Sunday or any other day of the week.... we suggest you inform your friends...that you do not have a problem with worshipping on a Sunday just as long as they do not insist that it be called 'the Sabbath.'"
(Take Hold by Ariel and D'vorah Berkowitz pp. 239-240)

And Stern writes:

"There are today all kinds of sects and denominations that likewise create false guilt by non scriptural teaching-- for example... that observing one one day rather than another as a day of worship is a sin..."
(JNT Commentary p. 280)

One Faith Two Expression theology even teaches that there is nothing wrong with Gentile Christians celebrating Christmas, Easter and other pagan holidays. Stern writes:

"I do not believe these verses (Gal. 4:8-10) prohibit the celebration of Christmas, Good Friday, Easter and other events of the Christian calendars followed by various Christian denominations. ... those who wish to celebrate, may; and those who prefer not to, may not-- all so long as whatever is done honors the Lord and builds up the Messianic Community."
(JNT Commentary. 558)

This is the live and let live theology of much of Messianic Judaism. They maintain that Messianic Jews and Gentile Christians are united together as one big "Church" or "Body of Messiah" together, They maintain that These two groups are simply culturally different expressions of the one true faith. They maintain that it is culturally appropriate for Messianic Jews to observe Saturday as the weekly day of worship, keep biblical Jewish holidays and eat kosher. On the other hand Gentiles are free to incorporate the Sabbath principle into a weekly Sunday worship, celebrate Christmas, Easter and other pagan holidays, eat unkosher foods etc. because they need not leave their gentile culture to join the Jewish "culture" of Torah observance.


Yeshua ("Jesus of Nazareth") did not come to found a new religion, he came to be Messiah of the old one. Yeshua lived his entire life without ever violating Torah, yet creating a new religion itself would have been a Torah violation. The original followers of Yeshua were not part of a new religion, they were a sect of Judaism. Not one "New Testament" writer refers to himself as being a "Christian" yet Paul continually identifies himself as Jewish (Acts 21:39; 22:3) and on one occasion he even declares "I am a Pharisee" (Acts 23:6).

Now I know that within many Christian circles there is a teaching that says that originally Judaism was the true faith but that it has now been replaced by a new faith "Christianity" which is now the true faith. This theology is totally counter to the teachings of the "New Testament". The "New Testament" is plain in telling us that there is one true faith (Eph. 4:5) which was given once and for all time (Jude 1:3). This means that the theology that claims that Christianity is a true faith which has replaced Judaism which had been the previous true faith is absolutely false! There is, according to the "New Testament" itself ONE TRUE FAITH and it was ONLY GIVEN ONCE. Christianity is to young to be that ONE true faith that was ONCE given, that ONE true faith that was ONCE given therefore MUST be Judaism!

The first believers in Yeshua were a Jewish sect known as "Nazarenes" or in Hebrew "N'tzarim" (Acts 24:5). The "church father" Jerome (4th Cent.) described these Nazarenes as those "...who accept Messiah in such a way that they do not cease to observe the old Law." (Jerome; On. Is. 8:14). The fourth century "church father" Epiphanius gives a more detailed description:

But these sectarians... did not call themselves Christians-- but "Nazarenes," ... However they are simply complete Jews. They use not only the New Testament but the Old Testament as well, as the Jews do... They have no different ideas, but confess everything exactly as the Law proclaims it and in the Jewish fashion-- except for their belief in Messiah, if you please! For they acknowledge both the resurrection of the dead and the divine creation of all things, and declare that G-d is one, and that his son is Y'shua the Messiah. They are trained to a nicety in Hebrew. For among them the entire Law, the Prophets, and the... Writings... are read in Hebrew, as they surely are by the Jews. They are different from the Jews, and different from Christians, only in the following. They disagree with Jews because they have come to faith in Messiah; but since they are still fettered by the Law--circumcision, the Sabbath, and the rest-- they are not in accord with Christians.... they are nothing but Jews.... They have the Goodnews according to Matthew in its entirety in Hebrew. For it is clear that they still preserve this, in the Hebrew alphabet, as it was originally written.
(Epiphanius; Panarion 29)


The authors of the "New Testament" also refer to this great apostasy:

11 And many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 12 And because apostasy will abound, the love of many will wax cold.
(Mt. 24:11-12 DuTillet Hebrew text)

Do not let anyone deceive you in any way, because [it will not come] except an apostasy should come first and the son of man of Torah-less-ness be revealed, the son of destruction ,
(2Thes. 2:3)

Now the spirit plainly says that in the last times some men shall depart from the faith and shall go after deceiving spirits and after teachings of shadim, Those who deceive by false appearance and are speaking a lie, and are seared in their conscience,
(1Timothy 4:1-2)

What does it mean "depart from the faith"? There is only one true faith (Eph. 4:5) which was once and for all delivered (Jude 1:3). But that faith was Judaism not Christianity.

Paul also said to the Ephesians on his last visit to them:

I know that after I am gone fierce wolves will enter in among you without mercy upon the flock. And also from among you there will rise up men speaking perverse things, so that they might turn away the talmidim to follow after them.
(Acts 20:29-30)

Paul seems to indicate that after his death leaders would begin to rise up in his stead that would draw people to follow themselves and draw them away from Torah. Perhaps the some of the very men who had twisted Paul's teaching into anti-nomianism would oneday become the leadership. In fact Paul died in 66 C.E. and the first overseer (Bishop) of Antioch to take office after his death was Ignatius in 98 C.E.. Ignatius fulfilled Paul's words precisely. Upon taking the office of Bishop over Antioch Ignatius sent out a series of epistles to other assemblies. His letters to the Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallianns, Romans, Philadelphians and Smyrnaeans as well as a personal letter to Polycarp overseer of Smyrnaea have survived to us.

In these letters Ignatius asserts the absolute authority of the office of "bishop" (his own office) over the assembly. Ignatius writes:

...being subject to your bishop... together according to the will of God. Jesus… is sent by the will of the Father; As the bishops… are by the will of Jesus Christ.
(Eph. 1:9, 11)

...your bishop... I think you happy who are so joined to him, as the church is to Jesus Christ and Jesus Christ is to the Father… Let us take heed therefore, that we not set ourselves against the bishop, that we may be subject to God... . We ought to look upon the bishop, even as we would upon the Lord himself.
(Eph. 2:1-4)

...obey your bishop...
(Mag. 1:7)

Your bishop presiding in the place of God... you united to your bishop...
(Mag. 2:5, 7)

...he... that does anything without the bishop... is not pure in his conscience...
(Tral. 2:5)

...Do nothing without the bishop.
(Phil. 2:14)

See that you all follow your bishop, As Jesus Christ, the Father...
(Smy. 3:1)

By exalting the power of the office of bishop (overseer) and demanding the absolute authority of the bishop over the assembly, Ignatius was actually making a power grab by thus taking absolute authority over the assembly at Antioch and encouraging other Gentile overseers to follow suite. In the past such disputes were resolved by the Nazarene Sanhedrin of the Nazarene assembly in Jerusalem (Acts 15).

Moreover Ignatius drew men away from Torah, not only at Antioch but at other Gentile assemblies to which he wrote:

Be not deceived with strange doctrines; nor with old fables which are unprofitable. For if we still continue to live according to the Jewish Law, we do confess ourselves not to have received grace...

let us learn to live according to the rules of Christianity, for whosoever is called by any other name besides this, he is not of God... .

It is absurd to name Jesus Christ, and to Judaize. For the Christian religion did not embrace the Jewish. But the Jewish the Christian…
(Mag. 3:1, 8, 11)

(This is the first time in History that Christianity is characterized as a new and different religion apart from Judaism).

But if any one shall preach the Jewish law unto you, hearken not unto him...
(Phil. 2:6)

Now Paul's prophecy was being fulfilled. Gentile leaders were causing men to follow after themselves and drawing people away from Torah, and it was springing forth from the first Gentile assembly. The result was the birth of a new Gentile religion that had effectively rebelled against Torah based Judaism, a religion known as Christianity.

Thus the Ancient Nazarene Historian and commentator Hegesippus (c. 180 CE) writes of the time immediately following the death of Shim'on, who succeeded Ya'akov HaTzadik (James the Just) as Nasi of

the Nazarene Sanhedrin and who died in 98 CE:

Up to that period (98 CE) the Assembly had remained like a virgin pure and uncorrupted: for, if there were any persons who were disposed to tamper with the wholesome rule of the preaching of salvation, they still lurked in some dark place of concealment or other. But, when the sacred band of Emissaries had in various ways closed their lives, and that generation of men to whom it had been vouchsafed to listen to the Godlike Wisdom with their own ears had passed away, then did the confederacy of godless error take its rise through the treachery of false teachers, who, seeing that none of the apostles any longer survived, at length attempted with bare and uplifted head to oppose the preaching of the truth by preaching "knowledge falsely so called."
(Hegesippus the Nazarene; c. 185 CE)

Hegisippus indicates the apostasy began the very same year that Ignatious became bishop of Antioch!


Two Torah theology immediately contradicts the Torah:

"One Torah shall be to him that is homeborn, and to the stranger that sojourns among you."
(Ex. 12:50)

According to the Torah, Jews and Gentiles must follow the ONE Torah.

Just before his ascension Yeshua instructed his [Jewish] talmidim:

"Go you therefore, and teach all the Goyim (Gentiles), and immerse them in the name of the Father, and the Son and the Ruach HaKodesh, and teach them to observe all that I have commanded you,"
(Mt. 28:19-20a)

Yeshua told his original Jewish followers to go teach the Gentiles "to observe all that I have commanded you [Jews]." The Great Commission was a commission to the Jews to go teach Torah Observance to the Gentiles!


There is one Torah and one true faith. That true faith is NOT the "Church" nor is it unified with Gentile Christianity. Sunday keeping, celebration of Christmas and Easter and Torah rejection is *NOT* a Gentile cultural expression of the true faith, it is not an expression of the true faith at all. There is only one expression of the one true faith and that is observance of the one Torah of the one true faith.
Comment by Anna B on May 30, 2009 at 11:26pm
Thank for this informational article. Regarding your statement:

"According to the Torah, Jews and Gentiles must follow the ONE Torah.

I agree with you 100%!


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