The Book of Y'hudah (Jude) not only quotes the Book of Enoch (Jude 1:14-15) it is also a sort of short commentary on the Book of Enoch, with almost every verse referencing the Enoch material. This makes the Book of Enoch an invaluable source in understanding the Book of Y'hudah, and vice-versa.
Moreover much of the Book of 2nd Kefa (2nd Peter) is a commentary on the Book of Y'hudah. We know Kefa is commenting on Y'hudah and not the other way around, because Kefa often generalizes information that is more specific in Y'hudah. Since Kefa is commenting on Y'hudah, he is also indirectly commenting on the Book of Enoch, and so his book helps us understand both Y'hudah directly, and Enoch indirectly (and the other books help us understand 2nd Kefa as well.
So lets go you line by line through the Book of Y'hudah using 2nd Kefa and the Book of Enoch and related sources to help us better understand what Y’hudah is saying (and what the Book of Enoch is saying as well).
Y'hudah opens with:
1 Y’hudah, a servant of Yeshua the Messiah, and brother of Ya’akov: to those who are
called; Set-Apart by Eloah the Father, and preserved in Yeshua the Messiah,
2 Mercy, shalom, and love, be multiplied to you.
3 Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you, concerning our common salvation, I
found it necessary to write to you, exhorting that you should earnestly contend for the
Trust, which was once for all delivered to the Set-Apart-Ones.
4 For certain men have crept in unnoticed: who long ago were marked out for this
condemnation; wicked men, who turn the grace of our Eloah into perversion, and deny
the only Master and Adon, Yeshua the Messiah.
5 But I want to remind you, though you once knew this: that YHWH, having saved the
people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those, who did not believe.
And Kefa comments on these verses saying:
1 But there were also false prophets among the people, even as there will be, false teachers among you--who will secretly bring in destructive sects--even denying the Adon who redeemed them, and bring on themselves swift destruction.
2 And many will follow their destructive ways: because of whom, the Way of Truth will be blasphemed.
3 And by covetousness, they will exploit you with deceptive words; whose judgment for a long time has not been idle, and their destruction does not slumber.
Kefa understands the “certain men” of Y’hudah to be “false prophets” who are like false prophets of old. The subject of false prophets arises for Kefa from 2Kafa 1:19-21.
19 We also have the prophetic Word made more sure, which you do well to heed as a
light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your
20 Knowing this first: that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private, interpretation,
21 For prophecy never came by the will of man: but Set-Apart men of Eloah, spoke as
they were moved by the Ruach HaKodesh.
As we will see as we continue, Kefa is talking about the prophets in general, ane the prophet Enoch in specific. Y’hudah says that these false prophets “turn the grace if our Eloah into perversion”, Kefa says that they “bring in destructive sects” and that because of these men “the way of truth will be blashphemed”. The way of truth is the way of Torah. The Tanak tells us that the Torah is truth (Ps. 119:142, 151). These false teachers will create sects that turn grace into perversion and blaspheme against the way of Torah.
6 And the angels who did not keep their first estate, but left their own habitation: He
has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness, for the judgment of the great day;
Kefa comments on this verse as follows:
4 For if Eloah did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to takh’ti, and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved for judgment,
5 And, did not spare the ancient world but saved Noach, one of eight people, a proclaimer of righteousness, bringing in the flood on the world of the wicked,
Kefa tells us only that the angels in question “sinned” however Jude says more specifically that they “did not keep their first estate, but left their own habitation”. Both 2Kefa and Jude (as well as 3Maccabees 2:4-5) immediately follow by paralleling their sin to that of S’dom and Amora “in similar manner having given themselves over to sexual immorality” (Jude 1:7). Thus making it clear that the angels sin was sexual. This refers back to the Book of Enoch:
1 And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters.
2 And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.'
3 And Shemikhazah, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear you will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.'
4 And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.'
5 Then they all swore together and bound themselves by imprecations upon it.
6 And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Yared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by imprecations upon it.
7 And these are the names of their leaders:
Shemikhazah, their leader,
Ar’tekif, the second to him,
Ram’tel, the third to him,
Kokav’el, the fourth to him,
Tami’el, the fifth to him,
Ra’m’el, the sixth to him,
Dani’el the seventh from him,
Zik’el, the eighth to him,
Barak’el, nineth to him,
8 Asa’el, tenth to him,
Hermoni, eleventh to him,
Matr’el, twelfth to him,
‘Anan’el, thirteenth to him,
Sitwa’el, fourteenth to him,
Shimsh’el, fifteenth to him,
Sahr’el, sixteenth to him,
Tamm’el, seventeenth to him,
Tur’el, eighteenth to him,
Yamm’el, nineteenth to him,
Zohari’el, twentieth to him.
These are their chiefs of tens.
Y’hudah says that YHWH has reserved them in everlasting chains under darkness, for the judgment of the great day which Kefa interprets to mean that He cast them down to takh’ti, and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved for judgment, Kefa tells us that these chains are in Takh’ti. The Greek has “Tarturus” which is used in the LXX (Job 40:20, 41:21) as a translation of Takh’ti. Takh’ti indicates the lowest parts of She’ol, a place reserved only for the Fallen Angels. The word Tarturus is used in the Greek text of 1Enoch 20:2 where Uriel is the jailer of these 200 angels. In Greek mythology the Titans were cast down by the gods and imprisoned in Tarturus. The Greeks must have incorporated the story of the Nephilim into their pagan mythology. The reference is of course to the Book of Enoch which says:
4 And again YHWH said to Rafa’el: 'Bind Azaz’el hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein.
5 And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light.
6 And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire.
7 And heal the earth, which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons.
7 As S’dom and Amora, and the cities around them in a similar manner to these, having given themselves over to sexual immorality, and gone after strange flesh, are set forth asan example--suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.
Kefa comments on this verse:
6 And, turning the cities of S’dom and Amora into ashes, condemned them to destruction; making them an example to those who afterward would live wickedly,
7 And, delivered righteous Lot, who was oppressed with the filthy conduct of the wicked:
8 (For that righteous man, dwelling among them, tormented his righteous nefesh from day to day, by seeing and hearing their unlawful deeds).
This reference to the fallen angels event of Gen. 6 as detailed in the Book of Enoch which brought the birth of “giants” wiped out by the flood immediately followed by a reference to the judgment of Sodom certainly alludes to 3rd Maccabees:
It was you who did destroy the former workers of unrighteousness, among whom were the giants, who trusted in their strength and hardihood, by covering them with a measureless flood. It was you who did make the Sodomites, those workers of exceeding iniquity, men notorious for their vices, an example to after generations, when you did cover them with fire and brimstone.
Notice also the common phrase “an example to after generations” (3Macc. 2:5) and “an example to those afterward” (2Kefa 2:6). Kefa and Y’hudah are definitely alluding to this material in 3rd Maccabees.
8 Likewise also, these dreamers defile the flesh, reject authority, and speak evil of rulers.
9 YHWH knows how to deliver the Set-Apart out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust under punishment for the day of judgment,
10 And especially those who walk according to the flesh, in the lust of uncleanness, and despise authority. They are presumptuous; self-willed: they are not afraid to speak evil of dignitaries.
Kefa interprets “these dreamers [who] defile the flesh” in Y’hudah as “those who walk according to the flesh, in the lust of uncleanness”. Kefa interprets those who “reject authority” as those who “despise authority” saying that “they are presumptuous” and that the reason they “speak evil of rulers” is that they are “not afraid” and interpreting the “rulers” to be “dignitaries”.
9 Yet Mikha’el the chief angel, in contending with Akel Kartza, when he disputed about the body of Moshe, dared not bring against him a reviling accusation: but said, YHWH rebuke you!
Kefa comments as follows:
11 Whereas angels, who are greater in power and might, do not bring a reviling accusation against them before YHWH.
The so-called “Church Fathers” (Clement, Origin and Didymus) maintained that this was a reference to an account found in the Assumption of Moses which is now lost.
According to Targum Jonathan, Michael had charge over the grave of Moses. (Targ. Jon. Deut. 34:6) moreover the Midrash Rabba to Deut. records that YHWH sent Mikhael to collect the soul of Moshe and that Sammael (angel of death, often identified with Satan) also tried to collect his soul. (Midrash Rabba Deut. 183). Taking all of this material combined, it appears that Mikhael and Satan disputed over the body of Moshe, because Satan wanted to make Moshe’s body into an idol. YHWH sent Mikhael to bury Moshe’s body in such a way that its location could not be discovered by man or Satan.
Y’hudah then writes:
10 But these speak evil of whatever they do not know: and whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things, they corrupt themselves.
12 But these, like natural brute beasts, made to be caught and destroyed, speak evil of thethings that they do not understand, and will utterly perish in their own corruption,
Then Y’hudah writes:
11 Woe to them: for they have gone the way of Kayin; run greedily in the error of Bil’am for profit, and perished in the rebellion of Korach.
On which Kefa comments (slightly out of order):
15 They have forsaken, the right Way, and gone astray, following the way of Bil’am ben B’or, who loved the wages of unrighteousness:
16 But he was rebuked for his iniquity. A dumb ass speaking with a man’s voice, restrained the madness of the prophet.
What is "the way of Kayin"? The way of Cain refers here to being seduced by deceptive spirits. The Zohar paralles the seduction of Cain by k’lifah (a demon, a husk of darkness) to the seduction of “the sons of God” Uzza and Azael.
When Cain was born this k'lifah tried for a time without success to attach herself to him, but at length she had intercourse with him and bore spirits and demons. Adam for a hundred and thirty years had intercourse with female spirits until Naamah was born. She by her beauty led astray the “sons of God”, Uzza and Azael, and she bore them children, and so from her went forth evil spirits and demons into the world. She wanders about at night time, vexing the sons of men and causing them to defile themselves. Wherever these spirits find people sleeping alone in a house, they hover over them, lay hold of them and cleave to them, inspire desire in them and beget from them.
The Zohar here refers to the fall of angels referred to in the Book of Enoch, in which Uzza and Azael are called “Shemikhazah” and “Azazel.”
What is the “error of Bil’am”? Kefa combines “way of Kayin” and “error of Bil’am (Balaam)” as “the way of Baalam”. The Zohar says that Balaam learned his magic from Uzza and Azael:
R. Jose further asked him: ‘In which place and from whom did Balaam derive all his magical practices and knowledge?’ R. Isaac replied: ‘He learned it first from his father, but it was in the “mountains of the East”, which are in an eastern country, that he obtained a mastery of all the arts of magic and divination. For those mountains are the abode of the angels Uzza and Azael whom the Holy One cast down from heaven, and who were chained there in iron fetters. It is they who impart to the sons of men a knowledge of magic.
The “Church Father” Irenaeus (early 2nd century – c. CE 202), makes a similar statement. Irenaeus accuses a Gnostic of his time of deriving magical knowledge and powers form Azazel, saying:
…wonders of power that is utterly severed from God and apostate, which Satan, thy true father, enables thee still to accomplish by means of Azazel, that fallen and yet mighty angel.
(Adv. Haereses; Ante-Nicean Fathers 1:340)
This also draws from the Book of Enoch, which relates that the Fallen angels taught sorcery to mankind (1Enoch 7:1; 8:2).
What does Kefa mean when he says “restrained the madness of the prophet.” Here Kefa refers to the Targum Jonathan which reads:
Wo to you, Balaam, you sinner, you madman:
there is no wisdom found in you.
(Targum Jonathan Numbers 22:28)
12 These are spots in your love feasts, while they feast with you without fear, tending only to themselves. They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds; late autumn trees without fruit; twice dead, pulled up by the roots;
And Kefa (returning to the original order) comments:
13 And, will receive the wages of unrighteousness, as those who count it pleasure to carouse in the daytime. They are spots and blemishes, carousing in their own deceptions while they feast with you;
14 Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable nefeshot. They have a heart trained in covetous practices, and are accursed children.
Y’hudah then writes:
13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame; wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.
17 These are wells without water; clouds carried by a tempest, to which the gloom of darkness is reserved forever.
What does Y’hudah mean when he says “wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.”? Y’hudah refers again to the Book of Enoch where we read:
14 The angel said: 'This place is the end of heaven and earth: this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven.
15 And the stars which roll over the fire are they which have transgressed the commandment of YHWH in the beginning of their rising, because they did not come forth at their appointed times.
16 And He was wroth with them, and bound them till the time when their guilt should be consummated (even) for ten thousand years.'
14 And Chanokh, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, Behold, YHWH comes with ten thousands of His Set-Apart-Ones:
15 To execute judgment on all, to convict all who are wicked among them of all their wicked deeds which they have committed in a wicked way, and all the harsh things which wicked sinners have spoken against Him.
16 These are murmurers; complainers: walking according to their own lusts. And their mouth speaks great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage.
And Kefa comments:
10 But the day of YHWH will come as a thief in the night: in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it, will be burned up.
11 Seeing then, that all these things will be dissolved, what manner of persons ought youto be, in Set-Apart conduct and upright;
12 Looking for, and hastening the coming of the Day of Eloah, because of which, the heavens, being on fire will be dissolved, and the elements will melt with fervent heat?
13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for a new heaven and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells.
Some commentators have tried to minimize the importance of thisquotation, claiming that Y’hudah was only quoting the Book of Enoch in the way that Paul quoted Greek philosophers. In fact there are two very important features in Y’hudah’s citation.
First of all, while the Book of Enoch is quoted (specifically 1Enoch 1:9), Y’hudah attributes his quote, not to the Book of Enoch, but to the man Enoch (Enoch, seventh from Adam). Since we have copies of the Book of Enoch which predate the Book of Y’hudah, this quote tells us that Enoch seventh from Adam wrote the Book of Enoch.
Secondly Y’hudah uses the word “prophecy”. Y’hudah tells us that this quote from Enoch which comes from the Book of Enoch is “prophecy”. That is a very important statement.
As we saw above Kefa (Peter) wrote specifically about prophecy, and particularly about the Book of Enoch when he said:
knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture
is of any private interpretation; for prophecy never
came by the will of man, but set-apart men of Eloah
spoke as they were moved by the Ruach HaKodesh.
(2Kefa (2Pt.) 1:20-21 – HRV)
So if, as Y’hudah tells us, the Book of Enoch is “prophecy” then Kefa tells us that it was inspired by the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit).
Paul has some important words for us about Scripture that is inspired:
Every writing which was written by the spirit is profitable
for teaching and for reproof and for correction and for
instruction in righteousness, that the son of man of Eloah
may be complete and whole for every good work.
(2Timothy 3:16-17 – HRV)
So if the Book of Enoch is prophecy then it was inspired by the Ruach HaKodesh. And if Enoch was inspired by the Ruach then it is profitable for teaching and for reproof and for correction and for instruction in righteousness. In other words, if Y’hudah is telling the truth then we should be using the Book of Enoch as Scripture and not taking it lightly!
Enoch prophecies “Behold, YHWH comes with ten thousands of His Set-Apart-Ones”, to Y’hudah the “coming of the Lord to judge the earth” is the coming of YHWH to the earth. There is little doubt that for Y’hudah the return of Messiah is the same “coming of the Lord” as this coming of YHWH to judge the earth.
Enoch says that He comes “to convict all who are wicked among them of all their wicked deeds which they have committed in a wicked way” to judge men according to their deeds.
But there is more, He will also hold them accountable for their words “…and all the harsh things which wicked sinners have spoken against Him. These are murmurers; complainers: walking according to their own lusts. And their mouth speaks great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage. “
Here Y’hudah speaks of a last days judgment on the “false prophets” of whom he has been speaking. These are the teachers of Torahlessness. According to Enoch (as shown above) they have given ear to the teachings of the Fallen Angels and are themselves following in their footsteps of doing their own will apart from the will of YHWH. They speak “harsh words” concerning the Torah, falsely characterizing the Torah as “bondage” and promising “freedom” to their followers. But unfortunately they will only take them down the same path as Shemikhazah and Azazel.
My wife Kitty (Inga) Trimm’s condition has been getting worse. The last few days her visits to doctors, test facilities and home healthcare visits, plus handling all of the cooking and cleaning has left me to busy to post much of an update.
The Doctor visits and tests have verified that the problem is that she is still infected since her septic shock back in August. The rounds of oral antibiotics since she left the hospital, have only succeeded in making the E. Coli strain infecting her resistant to the antibiotic they were using.
From what the Doctors have said, we expect the next step will be for her to be readmitted to the hospital to treat her infection with IV antibiotics.
As most of you know, things have been very hard for us the last few months. My wife Kitty went into the hospital August 3rd and did not come home until early October. She came home for a difficult recovery with home healthcare nurse visits several times a week.
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