Nazarene Space

WOW! This is earth shattering news....(I think) Comments please!
Have we all been keeping the wrong Sabbath hours?
BRACE YOURSELF!

(There is one point, aside from the main point of the correct Sabbath, the author brings up that is questionable in my mind. This being that Yeshua was the "first-born" of creation, or created by YHWH thereby introducing a second "G-d" and not that he is the "bereshit" or the author of creation.)

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WHEN DOES A DAY START
AN EXAMINATION INTO WHEN THE SABBATH BEGINS
THIS IS NOT A 12 HOUR SABBATH STUDY NOR LUNAR!


This is by no means to be a contentious article or to cause division; for most Messianic believers have all come from one form of Christianity or other, and are each of us, walking in the light we have received. If we are seeking, He says we will find and He will reveal Himself to those who show their love by keeping His commandments (John 14:21).

Most of us who have come out from Christianity, following traditions of man and honouring the first day of the week rather than the seventh look to Yisra'ĕl and seek the Jewish roots because we assumed they are keeping the First Covenant to the letter.

What we really find is that the Israelites of today have their own traditions which, according to Talmud, are above Scripture. Some of the traditions within Judaism are simply inherited from the Pagan nations that they were assimilated into during the exile in Babylon and Assyria. Some of these traditions include: naming months after false elohim (Tammuz, Nisan, Siwan), replacing the Name of Yahweh with “Adonai”, etc. It should come as no surprise because Yahushua, himself saved some of His most scathing rebukes for the “experts” in the Torah. The Yisra’ĕlites also had an earlier form of writing which changed to the Babylonian style of modern Aramaic we know today.

The truth is, that there is only one truth! “Thy Word is truth” (John 17:17) So, there is no point in looking to others to find how to please Yahweh. He has given us the truth in His Word.

For the Yehudim, the Shabbat traditionally starts at evening, when the sun has gone down, and ends 24 hours later. This is what a number of Messianics follow in regard to the Sabbath. Let's examine the Scriptures and see where the truth is.

The best place to start is at the start. What does the creation in Genesis reveal?

Genesis: chapter 1:1-5
In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth. And the earth came to be formless and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim was moving on the face of the waters. And Elohim said, “Let light come to be,” and light came to be. And Elohim saw the light, that it was good. And Elohim separated the light from the darkness. And Elohim called the light ‘day’ (yom) and the darkness He called ‘night.’ And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the first day.
The Light was not sunlight for the first 3 days and 3 nights, this is a picture of Yahushua, in the earth.
John 12:46 "I am come a light into the world..."

We know that the "light" (Yahushua) was the first creation:
Colossians 1:15-17
...who is the likeness of the invisible Elohim, the first-born of all creation. Because in Him were created all that are in the heavens and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or rulerships or principalities or authorities – all have been created through Him and for Him. And He is before all, and in Him all hold together.

Note:
LIGHT=Or=Yom, DARKNESS=Night=Layelah, EVENING=Erev, MORNING=Boker, FIRST=Echad.
Hebrew is cyclic rather than linear thinking.
Erev = mixing or a blending. You can't have it without both Light and darkness, which means the Light was there prior to the darkness.
Morning = Boker, boker is a breaking, dividing, separation, delineation or demarcation
All was stated as happening in order, then boker occurs, and that was the Echad or unified day. This is not the word Rishone for first.

So, to simplify:
The daylight part of a 24 hour period is called “DAY” (Hebrew: YOM).
EVENING (EREV) =Mixing of the Light and darkness after sunset
MORNING (BOKER) =break of day, which is the sun breaking the horizon.
Note: It is true that “yom” can mean an undefined period of time unless it is defined, as it is in the Genesis account (“there came to be evening and there came to be morning”)
This account of day one is no different than describing the age of a child. You are not one year old to you have lived a whole year. Likewise, Genesis describes the events that took place, then night to morning an is called "the first day".




DAY (Create) – EVENING – MORNING. It's really that simple. A day is morning to morning.
At the end of the six days of creation we read:
Genesis 2:1-3Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their array. And on the seventh day (yom) Elohim completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day (yom) from all His work which He had made. And Elohim blessed the seventh day (yom) and set it apart, because on it He rested from all His work which Elohim in creating had made.

So to clarify when a day starts, scripture informs that Elohim rested and blessed the SEVENTH DAYLIGHT PERIOD (YOM). Not the sixth night!

This is NOT saying a day is 12 hours. A full "day" in the creation account is defined as 24 hours starting in the morning.

If you believe that "there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the first day" supports a day beginning in the evening then you must believe that a day is 12 hours. As we will see from Scripture this is not the case.

WHAT SAITH THE SCRIPTURES?
As we continue through Scripture, we find many narratives that define a 24 hour day beginning in the morning, The following are some of the most straightforward:
Genesis 1:16
And Elohim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars.
Note: Why would Yahweh start a day with the "lesser light"?

Genesis 1:18
and to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness...
Note: The order: day-night, light-darkness...

Genesis 19:33-34
So they made their father drink wine that night. And the first-born went in and lay with her father, and he was not aware of it when she lay down or when she arose. 34 And it came to be on the next day that the first-born said to the younger, “See, I lay with my father last night.
Note: The "next" day followed the night.

Exodus 10:13
And Mosheh stretched out his rod over the land of Mitsrayim, and YHWH brought an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. Morning came, and the east wind brought the locusts.
Note: “that day” belongs to “that night”, then the “Morning came”

Exodus 16:22-27
And it came to be, on the sixth day, that they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one. And all the rulers of the congregation came and told Mosheh. And he said to them, “This is what YHWH has said, ‘Tomorrow is a rest, a Sabbath set-apart to YHWH. That which you bake, bake; and that which you cook, cook. And lay up for yourselves all that is left over, to keep it until morning.’ ” And they laid it up till morning, as Mosheh commanded. And it did not stink, and no worm was in it. And Mosheh said, “Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to YHWH, today you do not find it in the field. “Gather it six days, but on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath, there is none.” And it came to be that some of the people went out on the seventh day to gather, but they found none.
Note: Yahweh said “Tomorrow” was Sabbath, then “morning” comes and Mosheh said “eat it today, for today is a Sabbath”.

Exodus 18:13
And it came to be, on the next day, that Mosheh sat to rightly rule the people. And the people stood before Mosheh from morning until evening.
Note: the “next day” starts in the “morning”.

Exodus 32:5-6
And Aharon saw and built an altar before it. And Aharon called out and said, “Tomorrow is a festival to YHWH.” 6 And they rose early on the next day, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
Note: Aaron said “tomorrow” is a festival and the “next day” they “rose early”. You don't rise at night.

Leviticus 6:20
This is the offering of Aharon and his sons, which they bring near to YHWH, beginning on the day when he is anointed: one-tenth of an ĕphah of fine flour as a daily grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it at night.
Note: The offering was to be brought to Yahweh in “the morning”, the “beginning of the day”.

Leviticus 7:15
As for the flesh of the slaughtering of his peace offering for thanksgiving, it is eaten the same day it is offered, he does not leave any of it until morning."
Note: How can you eat your peace offering "the same day" and "not leave any of it till morning" if your day starts at night!?

Numbers 11:32
And the people were up all that day, and all that night, and all the next day, and gathered the quail. He who has least gathered ten omers. And they spread them out for themselves all around the camp.
Note: “that day” belongs to “that night”, then the “next day” comes

Joshua 7:6-13
6 And Yehoshua tore his garments, and fell to the earth on his face before the ark of YHWH until evening, both he and the elders of Yisra’ĕl, and they put dust on their heads... 10 And YHWH said to Yehoshua, “Rise up! Why are you lying on your face?... 13 “Rise up, set the people apart, and you shall say, ‘Set yourselves apart for tomorrow, because thus said YHWH Elohim of Yisra’ĕl, “That which is under the ban is in your midst...”
Note: It was already “evening” when Yahweh told Yehoshua to set themselves apart for “tomorrow”, so a day cannot begin at evening.

Judges 19:9
And the man arose to go, he and his concubine and his servant. But his father-in-law, the young woman’s father, said to him, “See, the day is now drawing toward evening. Please spend the night. See, the day is coming to an end. Stay here, and let your heart be glad. And you shall rise early tomorrow for your journey, and you shall go to your tent.”
Note: Rising "early tomorrow" implies the start of the day being morning.

1 Samuel 19:10-11
and Sha’ul sought to smite the spear through Dawid, and into the wall, but he slipped away from the presence of Sha’ul, so he smote the spear into the wall. And Dawid fled and escaped that night. And Sha’ul sent messengers to Dawid’s house to watch him and to put him to death in the morning. And Mikal, Dawid’s wife, informed him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you are put to death.”

Note: Again, It was already “night” when Mikal told Dawid to flee for “in the morning”, or “tomorrow” he was to be killed, so a day cannot begin at evening.

1 Samuel 28:8-19
8 And Sha’ul disguised himself and put on other garments, and went, he and two men with him. And they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Please divine for me, and bring up for me the one I shall name.”... 11 So he said, “Bring up Shemu’ĕl for me.”... 16 Then Shemu’ĕl said, “And why do you ask me, seeing YHWH has turned aside from you and has become your enemy?... 19 “Further, YHWH also gives Yisra’ĕl with you into the hand of the Philistines. And tomorrow you and your sons are with me. YHWH also gives the army of Yisra’ĕl into the hand of the Philistines.”
Note: If Sha'ul came at “night” how could fight the Philistines “tomorrow”?

1 Samuel 30:17
And Dawid smote them from twilight until the evening of the next day. And none of them escaped, except four hundred young men who rode on camels and fled.
Note: If a day were from evening to evening the Scripture would not read “the next day”.

2 Samuel 24:13-15
Gad then came to Dawid and informed him. And he said to him, “Should seven years of scarcity of food come to you in your land? Or would you flee three months before your enemies, while they pursue you? Or should there be three days’ plague in your land? Now know and see what answer I take back to Him who sent me.” And Dawid said to Gad, “I am in great trouble. Please let us fall into the hand of YHWH, for His compassion is great, but do not let me fall into the hand of man.” And YHWH sent a plague upon Yisra’ĕl from the morning till the appointed time, and from Dan to Be’ĕrsheba seventy thousand men of the people died.

Note: The “three day” plague started in the “morning”, not at night.

Lamentations 3:22-23
The kindnesses of YHWH! For we have not been consumed, For His compassions have not ended. They are new every morning, Great is Your trustworthiness.
Note: “new every morning”, because morning is a new day.

Jonah 4:6-7
And YHWH Elohim appointed a plant and made it come up over Yonah, to be a shade for his head to deliver him from his discomfort. And Yonah greatly rejoiced over the plant. But as morning dawned the next day Elohim appointed a worm which attacked the plant so that it withered.
Note: “morning” starts the “next day”.

Zecharyah 14:7
And it shall be one day which is known to YHWH, neither day nor night, but at evening time there shall be light.

Note: A 24 hour day is mentioned here with the day preceding the night.

Matthew 28:1
Now after the Sabbath, toward dawn on the first day of the week, Miryam from Magdala and the other Miryam came to see the tomb.
Note: In all these examples the Sabbath ended at “dawn”

Mark 16:2
And very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

Luke 24:1
And on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared

Note: The account given in John is the only one that disagrees with these three witnesses - John 20:1 And on the first day of the week Miryam from Magdala came early to the tomb, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been removed from the tomb. The fact that 1 out of 4 disagrees means the translation of “still”dark may need to be examined. The Greek word “eti” Strong's# 2089 can also mean “no longer”.

John 6:16-22
And when evening came, His taught ones went down to the sea, and entering into the boat, they were going over the sea toward Kephar Nahum. And it had already become dark, and Yahushua had not yet come to them. And the sea was rising because a great wind was blowing. When they had rowed about five or six kilometres, they saw Yahushua walking on the sea and coming near the boat, and they were afraid. And He said to them, “It is I, do not be afraid.” They wished therefore to take Him into the boat, and at once the boat was at the land where they were going. On the next day..."

Note: This is straightforward. It was already dark at night when these things took place... the the next day.

Acts 4:3
And they arrested them, and put them in jail until the next day, for it was already evening.

Note: Again dark, then the next day.

Acts 16:9-11
And in the night a vision appeared to Sha’ul: A man of Makedonia was standing, begging him and saying, “Come over to Makedonia and help us.” And when he saw the vision, immediately we sought to go to Makedonia, concluding that the Master had called us to bring the Good News to them. Therefore, sailing from Troas, we ran a straight course to Samothrake, and the next day came to Neapolis.

Note: The next day follows the night yet again.

Acts 23:31-32
31 So the soldiers, as they were commanded, took Sha’ul and brought him by night to Antipatris. 32 And on the next day they left the horsemen to go on with him, and returned to the barracks.

Note: Again, the next day follows the night

Having the night as the first part of the day seems to be a reversal of many of Yahushua's parables which He describes Himself as the us as “light of the world” (Jn 8:12, Jn 9:5, Jn 12:46, etc.) and we should “walk in the light” and “not in darkness” (Jn 8:12, Jn 11:9-10, Jn 12:35, Jn 9:4, etc.)
Many of the New Covenant letters likewise use similar parables.

1 Thessalonians 5:5
You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness.
See also: Rom 13:12-13, Eph 5:8, 1Thess 5:7-8. Why start a day when we all sleep?

ANOMOLIES
With so many Scriptural references defining the day and when it begins, one wonders what compels some to hold to the traditions of the evening to evening Sabbath? To be fair there are a couple of references that can cause confusion if taken out of context.

Leviticus 23:26-32
And YHWH spoke to Mosheh, saying, “On the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to YHWH. “And you do no work on that same day, for it is the Day of Atonement, to make atonement for you before YHWH your Elohim. “For any being who is not afflicted on that same day, he shall be cut off from his people. “And any being who does any work on that same day, that being I shall destroy from the midst of his people. “You do no work – a law forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.”

It is quite clear in the context of this Law that the Sabbath for the day of atonement differs from other Sabbaths, in that Yahweh Specified this particular High Sabbath to be kept from evening to evening. Notice that Yahweh makes it clear by numbering the days; that the day of atonement is on the "tenth day" but the fast commences on the "ninth day" at evening.

Why would Yahweh Command us to start the fast on the ninth day at evening if the tenth day started at evening anyhow? It also makes sense to keep this fast this way, as some children may find it difficult waking; having not eaten all night, to fast throughout the day and then another night; a total 72 hours.

Another exception is the night of the Passover in which Yahweh led His people out of Egypt:

Leviticus 23:5
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to YHWH.

One glaring problem of the evening to evening observance is that it is impossible to celebrate your passover on the evening of the 14th and eat you celebration meal “that night”!
If your “day” starts in the evening then celebrate at night, then you have passed into the 15th according to an evening to evening reckoning...

Exodus 12:6-8
And you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then all the assembly of the congregation of Yisra’ĕl shall kill it between the evenings. ‘And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it. ‘And they shall eat the flesh on that night, roasted in fire - with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.”
Note: This whole Festival takes place on the one day of the 14th, starting “between the evenings and continuing that night!

Some express difficulty in correlating the morning to morning reckoning with the Passover, yet the timing of this important festival is not defining when a day starts or ends; Yahweh simply wants us to honour the feast on the night of the 14th because that is the time He led His people out of Mitsrayim...

Deuteronomy 16:1
Guard the month of Abib, and perform the Passover to YHWH your Elohim, for in the month of Abib YHWH your Elohim brought you out of Mitsrayim by night.”

Deuteronomy 16:6
...you slaughter the Passover in the evening, at the going down of the sun, at the appointed time you came out of Mitsrayim.”

The Feast of unleavened Bread follows on from the Passover and we are also commanded to remove leaven from our homes from that night:

Exodus 12:18
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening.

Something to take into account: If someone keeps Pesach at the “beginning” of the 14th (end of the 13th), they sit with 8 days of unleavended bread, where the command is clear to eat unleavened bread from the eating of the Pesach for 7 days. Ex. 12:15, 19; 13:6,7; 23:15; 34:18; Lev. 23:6; Num. 28:17 ; Deut. 17:8. Most importantly:

Deuteronomy. 16: 2-3
And you shall slaughter the Passover to YHWH your Elohim, from the flock and the herd, in the place where YHWH chooses to put His Name. “Eat no leavened bread with it. For seven days you eat unleavened bread with it, bread of affliction…”

Note: This suggests that Pesach is the start of the 7 day unleavened bread period, which is a continuous 7 day period and not an 8 day period.

Another apparent anomaly is:

Nehemyah 13:18-21
“Did not your fathers do the same so that our Elohim brought all this evil on us and on this city? Yet you bring added wrath on Yisra’ĕl by profaning the Sabbath.” And it came to be, at the gates of Yerushalayim, as it began to be dark before the Sabbath, that I commanded the gates to be shut, and commanded that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath. And I stationed some of my servants at the gates, so that no burdens would be brought in on the Sabbath day. And the merchants and sellers of all kinds of wares spent the night outside Yerushalayim once or twice, and I warned them, and said to them, “Why do you spend the night around the wall? If you do so again, I lay hands on you!” From that time on they came no more on the Sabbath.

“As it began to be dark before the Sabbath” could infer that Sabbath starts when the sun goes down, but does not have to be the case. Against the weight of all other Scripture it would be foolish to base your Sabbath on this one verse. In fact, it was customary to close the gates at night and earlier in Nehemyah we see why they were closing the gates:

Nehemyah 7:3
"And I said to them, “Let not the gates of Yerushalayim be opened until the sun is hot. And while they are standing by, let them shut the doors and bolt them. And appoint guards from among the inhabitants of Yerushalayim, each at his post, and each in front of his own house.”

Nehemyah had ordered them to shut the gates at night anyhow and were not to be opened "until the sun was hot", and as we can see from the context of the Scripture, Nehemyah did not want the Sabbath profaned by merchants carrying in their wares and selling on the day of rest. The merchants undoubtedly travelled on the sixth day and arrived toward the end of the day, so Nehemyah simply shut the gates on them.

It should also be noted that this all took place after more than 150 years of captivity in Babylon which, as stated is where the Yisra’ĕlites had absorbed so many of the Babylonian traditions (see references below). This may well be the first account of an evening to evening Sabbath.

There are also a great number of Scriptures that declare uncleanliness till evening and certain events taking place before evening that give some the assumption that a day starts in the evening. None of these Scriptures actually state this, and is common sense to be made clean at evening so the persons may come into the camp to spend the night, as it was unlawful for an unclean person to come into the camp. More importantly, if the next day were a Sabbath an individual would not be able to participate in any set-apart assembly and would have to wait for the next evening.

Some see evidence that this is how the Pharisees, instituting an evening to evening day created a “fence law” around this.

It was for this reason that dead bodies were removed before evening (Josh 8:29, Mark 15:42) and that it was Commanded in the Torah (Deut 21:23) not because it was the start of a new day.

SUN WORSHIP OR MOON WORSHIP?
Some may use the excuse that starting the day in the morning is based on sun worship, but this is an invalid argument as the same can be said about evening start being based on moon worship since moon worship is equally as ancient as sun worship. In fact, looking at many historical commentaries (see below) it appears the Yisra’ĕlites inheriteded lunar observance from the Babylonians who revered the moon above the sun in that it was more mysterious at night.

It is also interesting to note that the phrase “night and day” appears 13 times in Scripture, yet the phrase “day and night” appears 28 times (twice as many).

The order of "day" preceding "night" in Scripture is used 84 times compared to only 19 of the opposite (over four times as many).

When determining a set period of time (e.g. "forty days and forty nights" which appears 11 times) the Scriptures always use the order of day and night. Why would the Scriptures record a count of days starting with the "day" if a day starts with a night?

Notice the order of the natural processes that Yahweh has ordered:
Genesis 8:22 "As long as the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and winter and summer, and day and night shall not cease.”

This is what Yahweh has to say about the order of day and night:

Jeremiah 33:20-21
“Thus said YHWH, ‘If you could break My covenant with the day and My covenant with the night, so that there be not day and night in their season, then My covenant could also be broken...”
and continuing...

Jeremiah 33:25-26
“Thus said YHWH, ‘If My covenant is not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the laws of the heavens and earth, then I would also reject the descendants of Yaʽaqob...”

OTHER COMMENTARIES
So far we have examined the Scriptures from which should come all our docrine, but it is also interesting to delve into some of the studies of historians and commentaries...

"...The nighttime is considered as belonging to the preceding period of daylight. from this there developed the meaning of "day" in the sense of the cycle made up of one period of daylight and one period of darkness, or according to our modern reckoning, twenty-four hours...from the natural viewpoint the twenty-four hour day begins at sunrise...

However, beside this conception there arose another idea of the twenty-four hour day, according to which this daily period began at sunset. it was no doubt the lunar calendar of the Jews which gave rise to this viewpoint... although the earlier computation did not die out completely, the custom of considering the day as beginning at sunset became general in later Jewish times..." (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible. p.497)

"There can be no doubt that in pre-exilic times the Israelites reckoned the day from morning to morning. The day began with the dawn and closed with the end of the night following it..." (Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Rabbinic Essays, (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1951), p. 446)

"...To the Light He gives the name Day, to the Darkness the name Night...Thus the work of the first day, reckoned probably from morning to morning, is accomplished. The period of Light is followed by Evening and Darkness, which comes to an end with the next morning when the second day begins..." (Peake's Commentary on The Bible, p.136).

"In the Old Testament the earlier practice seems to have been to consider that the day began in the morning. In Gen. 19:34, for example, the "morrow" (ASV) or "Next Day" (RSV) clearly begins with the morning after the preceding night..." (Jack Finegan, The Handbook of Biblical Chronology, p.7-8).

"...In earlier traditions a day apparently began at sunrise (e.g., Lev. 7:15-17; Judg. 19:4-19)...
later its beginning was at sunset and its end at the following sunset...
this system became normative...and is still observed in Jewish tradition, where for example , the sabbath begins on Friday evening at sunset and ends Saturday at sunset..." (Oxford Companion to the Bible, p.744).

"That the custom of reckoning the day as beginning in the evening and lasting until the following evening was probably of late origin is shown by the phrase "tarry all night" (Jdg 19:6-9); the context shows that the day is regarded as beginning in the morning; in the evening the day "declined," and until the new day (morning) arrived it was necessary to "tarry all night" (compare also Num 11:32)" (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)

"...It is also interesting that according to the Karaite historian Al-QirqisanI (ca. 975 CE), the dissident Meswi al-Okbari (ca.850 CE) broke from traditional Rabbinical Judaism in an attempt to get back to the original religion and began the reckoning of the day from sunrise. (The Itinerary of R. Benjamin of Tudela, ix, 5-8, ed. Gruhut-Adler, (1904), p. 23)

"Among the Greeks the day was reckoned from sunset to sunset..." (Handbook of Chronology, op.cit., p.8)

"Among the ancient Israelites, as among the Greeks, the day was reckoned from sunset to sunset. This was the custom also of the Gauls and ancient Germans, and was probably connected originally with the cult of the moon. There is, however, evidence that this was not the custom at all times..." (Delitzsch in Dillmann's commentary on Gen. i. 5)

"...Early in the old testament period, when Canaan was under Egypt's influence, the day started at sunrise...later, perhaps under Babylonian influence, the calendar seems to have changed. the day began at moonrise (1800 hrs) and a whole day became an evening and a morning..." (Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible - p.163).

"...The Israelites, like the Babylonians, counted their days from sunset to sunset..." (NIV Study Bible, p.707)

“We know little about the old Israelite calendar, apart from the laws of the festivals. But the Mishnah (the collection of Jewish law made at the end of the 2nd century AD) fully describes the system which the Jews had worked out under Babylonian influence...” (Eerdman's Handbook to the Bible).

"When the Jews returned to Palestine after their Babylonian exile (516 B.C.E.) they brought back with them the Babylonian astronomy and way of reckoning time..." (What is a Jew, p. 108)

"In order to fix the beginning and ending of the Sabbath-day and festivals and to determine the precise hour for certain religious observances it becomes necessary to know the exact times of the rising and setting of the sun. According to the strict interpretation of the Mosaic law, every day begins with sunrise and ends with sunset... (Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 591-597)

"Days were reckoned from morning to morning... Following the reign of King Josia (c. 640-609), and especially after the Babylonian exile a number of significant and enduring changes occurred in the Israelite calendar showing that the Jews gradually adopted the Babylonian calendar of the time...the seven day week persisted despite its failure to divide evenly either the month or the year. the day however, was counted from evening to evening, after the Babylonian fashion..." (New Catholic Encyclopedia -Volume 11, p.1068)

"So far as we know, the Babylonian calendar was at all periods truly lunar...
the month began with the evening when the new crescent was for the first time again visible shortly after sunset. consequently, the Babylonian day also begins in the evening..." (Exact Sciences in Antiquity, p.106)

"...Numerous scholars have argued for the existence in Bible times of a sunrise method of day reckoning...the evidence for the sunrise reckoning is significant and cannot be ignored..." (The Time of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection, Chapter 5)

"In Israel, the day was for a long time reckoned from morning to morning...and it was in fact in the morning, with the creation of light, that the world began; the distinction of day and night, and time too, began on a morning (Gen. 1:3-5, cf. 14:16, 18). The opposite conclusion has been drawn from the refrain which punctuates the story of creation: “There was an evening and there was a morning, the first, second, etc., day”; This phrase, however, coming after the description of each creative work (which clearly happens during the period of light), indicates rather the vacant time till the morning, the end of a day and the beginning of the next work...The change of reckoning must there fore have taken place between the end of the monarchy and the age of Nehemias... this would bring us to the beginning of the exile..." (Ancient Israel, p.181-182).

"The first evening was not the gloom, which possibly preceded the full burst of light as it came forth from the primary darkness, and intervened between the darkness and full broad daylight. It was not till after the light had been created, and the separation of the light from the darkness had taken place, that evening came, and after the evening the morning...It follows from this, that the days of creation are not reckoned from evening to evening, but from morning to morning..." (Commentary on the Old Testament, The First Book of Moses, p. 51)

"In early Jewish practice,... it seems to have been customary to reckon the day from sunrise to sunrise, or, rather, from dawn to dawn. Thus the law for the "praise-offering" (lev. 7:17 (pt) specifies that this sacrifice must be eaten on the day upon which it is offered, and that nothing may be left until morning. The repetition of the law in Lev. 22:30... is even more explicit: "On that very day (when it was sacrificed) it shall be eaten; ye shall not leave anything of it until morning. Clearly the next morning is here reckoned as belonging to the next day, and not the same day as the preceding evening and night. In other words, the day is reckoned here from sunrise to sunrise...Likewise in Exod. 16:19f...the manna was given to the people in the morning, just at dawn and before the sun had become warm (16:21). It was to be eaten only on the day upon which it was gathered; nothing was to remain over until the next morning; that which did so became foul. Here, too, the day seems to have been reckoned from dawn to dawn...From Matt. 28:1 It may be inferred that the practice of reckoning the day from sunset to sunset was not universal in Israel, but in certain circles the older practice continued for several centuries...It is manifest that the day is still reckoned here from dawn to dawn. This is also the implication of the parallel passage, Mark 16:1f...Luke 23:56b-24:1 seems to imply the same...

Finally, it is significant that in the second Temple, throughout its entire existence, the practice seems to have been in all ritual matters to reckon the day from dawn to dawn, and not according to the later practice, from sunset to sunset...even the rabbis, who, themselves, reckoned the day from sunset to sunset, and refused to admit the legitimacy of any other practice, or rather, absolutely ignored all divergent practice, none the less had to admit the validity of the interpretation of Lev. 7:15...
the day was at one time reckoned from sunrise to sunrise...

The earlier practice, which continued until the time of the secondary strata of the Priestly code, was to reckon the day from dawn to dawn...

The later practice was to reckon the day from sunset to sunset...
It is impossible to tell exactly when this change in the mode of reckoning the day took place in Israel, and what causes brought it about. Possibly it may have had something to do with the introduction of the lunar calendar instead of the solar, for the lunar calendar naturally presupposes a reckoning of the day from nightfall to nightfall...

It was probably coincident with the revision of the festival calendar, which took place in the period after the time of Ezra, and was, in all probability, the work of the soferim or of the Great Synod in the fourth century B.C. This may also be inferred from the statement in the Talmud (Berachoth 33a) that the men of the Great Synod instituted the ceremonies of Kiddush and Havdalah, the solemn sanctification of the Sabbath on Friday eve, and its equally solemn ushering out on Saturday eve, in other words, ceremonies specifically marking the beginning and close of the Sabbath as at sunset. These were ceremonies for the Jewish home instead of the Temple. This, coupled with the fact that in the second Temple the old system of reckoning the day from dawn to dawn continued to be observed, as we have seen, may perhaps indicate that this entire innovation was the work of an anti-priestly group or party in the Great Synod..." (The Sources of the Creation Story - Gen. 1:1- 2:4, p. 169-212)

"A new stage in the investigation of the problem of the calendar of ancient Israel was marked by the appearance of a learned article by E. Koenig in 1906...He maintains that two distinct calendars were current in ancient Israel. The first, a solar calendar...This solar calendar was well adapted to the conditions of the simple, agricultural life which the Israelites lived during the first period of their sojourn in Palestine. It reckoned the day from sunrise...

The second calendar was a luni-solar year...The day now came quite naturally to be reckoned from sunset...This second calendar was obviously based upon Babylonian models and was adopted under direct Babylonian influence at about 600 B.C., when Babylonian religion and general culture began to affect with steadily increasing force the Jewish exiles in Babylonia and, through those of them who return from exile, the Jews who had remained in Palestine.

This broadly sums up Koenig's conclusions...
...the time of the transition from the reckoning of the day as beginning with morning to the reckoning of it as beginning with evening... ...that in the earlier calendar and in the literature which records this the day was reckoned from the morning, presumably from sunrise, while in the later calendar and the literature pertaining thereto the day was reckoned from the evening...must be eaten upon the day upon which it is sacrificed, and that nothing of it must be allowed to remain over until morning. Obviously the implication here is that the next morning is no longer a part of the day upon which the sacrifice was offered, but mark the beginning of the next day... ...Elsewhere we have presented quite a mass of evidence which establishes conclusively that the earlier practice in Israel during the biblical period was to reckon the day from sunrise to sunrise... ...That in the earliest period of Israelite sojourn in Palestine, under calendar 1, the day was reckoned from morning to morning is established by a superabundance of evidence...
...This in turn, together with other important considerations, would point to a time approximately about the beginning or the first half, of the third century B.C. as that of the introduction of the new system of reckoning the day." (Supplementary Studies in The Calendars of Ancient Israel, p. 1-148).

Note: It is interesting to note the wide variety of commentators who may not agree on many points of doctrine, but do agree that the Scriptural day begins at first light in the morning.

If you have any verse in Scripture that clearly states a day starts in the evening then we would love to know, but the conclusion of the matter is: If you have no Scriptures to support your belief then you have added to Yahweh's Commands and are practicing vain traditions.
May Yahweh bless you as you seek to obey...

Scriptures quoted are taken from “The Scriptures – 1998” (International Scripture Research) available through www.isr-messianic.org

Views: 156

Comment by Mikha El on September 12, 2009 at 6:58am
Why is the post editing feature we used to see no longer available?

I would have preferred to add to the LEV 23 comment above.

Jane's research:

http://yehspace.ning.com/profiles/blog/show?id=2009636%3ABlogPost%3A11638


UIQaRA (Leviticus) 23:32

The majority of my discussion will hinge around the following "verse" of scripTURE:

(Scriptures 98) Lev 23:32 ‘It is a SABBATH of REST to you, and you shall AFFLICT your beings. On the NINTH DAY of the month at EVENING, from EVENING to EVENING, you OBSERVE your SABBATH.

The word “day” is not actually written in the Hebrew Westminster Leningrad Codex manuscript after the word "ninth" here. However the fact we are dealing with DAYS of the month in this CHAPTER of UIQaRA is implied from the CONTEXT of this verse (32).

There are a few other instances in the bible where the word “day” is left out, in a context involving days. The emission of the word "IUM" does not constitute foulplay (by scribes) in itself, but it should be noted.


How Long is a Day?

Now, how long is this ninth DAY in UIQaRa 23:32?

Almost always the Hebrew word for “day” is IUM. IUM means the period of 12 hours of light-time as per pictographic ancient Hebrew definition, and per its usage and meaning in a plethora of other scripTUREs (for proof see my article Days Start at Sunrise.)

Still, some people will insist that this DAY is the ninth period of 24 hours, of the month, that either starts at 1) sunset or 2) sunrise.

I shall investigate all three situations in an attempt to obtain some sanity from, and gauge of authenticity of the verse Lev 23:32.


Evening Actually Means “Afternoon”

Before going further let’s clarify the meaning of the word “evening”.

The word “evening” is “ORaB” in Hebrew. The word ORaB does NOT mean “sunset” and it does NOT mean, “night-time”. It means “AFTERNOON”. If you do not believe me please see my article, “Days Begin at Sunrise”.

The ORaB (evening) is the time of the lengthening shadows. It is the time between midday and sunset. It is the time we start looking towards and heading for home. It is NOT translated as “sunset” anywhere in scripTURE, as far as I have searched.


Entirely Separate Phrase for “Sunset”

There is an entirely different phrase for SUNSET in Hebrew. It is “BA-E-SHaMaSH” (H 935, H8121).

Here are just a few of the instances where the SUNSET is specifically referred to.

These references relate to the time and life of MaSHE (Moses), which is the exact same era as UIQaRa (Leviticus). This is significant because if we are to start IUM KIPUR at sunset we should expect to see the phrase "BA-E-SHaMaSH" in Leviticus chapter 23 somewhere (but we don't).

CLV Ex 17:12 When the hands of Moses became heavy, they took a stone and placed it beneath him, and he sat on it. As for Aaron and Hur, they upheld his hands, from this side one and and from that side one. So it came to be that his hands were constant until SUNSET [BA E ShaMaSH]

CLV Ex 22:26 If you take in pledge, yea in pledge the raiment of your associate, previous to SUNSET [BA E ShaMaSH] you shall restore it to him,

CLV Dt 11:30 Are they not across the Jordan, behind the SUNSET [BA E ShaMaSH] road into the country of the Canaanite, who is dwelling in the Aravah toward Gilgal beside the oaks of Moreh?

CLV Dn 6:14 Then the king, when he hears the matter, is enormously in bad odor to himself. As to Daniel he sets his heart to deliver him; thus till SUNSET [BA E ShaMaSH] he is exerting himself to rescue him.


Scenario 1 – A Day is 12 Hours Long

Let's re-write Lev 23:32 with this definition in mind:

Lev 23:32
It is a SHaBaT of rest to you,
and you shall afflict your beings
On the ninth PERIOD OF 12 HOURS OF DAYLIGHT
of the month
at AFTERNOON,
from AFTERNOON to AFTERNOON,
you observe your SHaBaT.

A. If both afternoons of the daylight periods ‘9” and “10” are included in the resting and fasting, and the day (light period/IUM) of atonement is only 12 hours long, then the SHaBaT would last for 30 HOURS IN TOTAL. This is made up of six hours (from midday to sunset on the ninth day (IUM)), plus 24 hours (from sunset of the ninth day to sunset of the tenth day (IUM)).

This exceeds a 24 hour MODERN DAY, and, for no apparent reason, exceeds ALL SIX OTHER ANNUAL High SHaBaTs that would, in this scenario, be only 12 hours long. These ShaBaTS are all only to be observed for ONE IUM (period of 12 daylight hours).

The FIRST annual High SHaBaT, “MaTSE 1”, is Day One of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. ScripTURE tells us it lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Lev 23:6 ‘And on the fifteenth DAY [IUM] of this month is the Festival of Unleavened Bread to יהוה – seven DAYS [IMIM] you eat unleavened bread. Lev 23:7 ‘On the first DAY [IUM] you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.

The SECOND annual High SHaBaT “MaTSE 7”, is Day Seven of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. ScripTURE tells us it lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Lev 23:8 ‘And you shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה for seven DAYS [IMIM]. On the seventh DAY [IUM] is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.’ ”

The THIRD annual High SHaBaT, “SHABUOUT” (Shavuot/Pentecost) lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Lev 23:20 ‘And the priest shall wave them, besides the bread of the first-fruits, as a wave offering before יהוה, besides the two lambs. They are set-apart to יהוה for the priest. Lev 23:21 ‘And on this same DAY [IUM] you shall proclaim a set-apart gathering for yourselves, you do no servile work on it – a law forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

The FOURTH annual High SHaBaT, “IUM TaRUOE” (the Day of Trumpets) lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Num 29:1 ‘And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work, it is a DAY [IUM] of blowing the trumpets for you.

The SIXTH annual High SHaBaT, “XaKUT 1” (First Day of Festival of Booths) lasts for ONE IUM. Lev 23:34 “Speak to the children of ISHaRaAL, saying, ‘On the fifteenth DAY [IUM] of this seventh month is the Festival of Booths for seven DAYS [IMIM] to יהוה. Lev 23:35 ‘On the first DAY [IUM] is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.

The SEVENTH annual High ShaBaT “XaKUT 8” lasts for ONE IUM. Lev 23:36 ‘For seven DAYS [IMIM] you bring an offering made by fire to יהוה. On the eighth DAY [IUM] there shall be a set-apart gathering for you, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה. It is a closing festival, you do no servile work.
All SHaBaTs were observed in the DAY [IUM]. This is because work in ancient Hebrew times was almost always undertaken ONLY during the daylight hours. This is the reason why we are commanded to refrain from working in the DAY [IUM]. Night-time was by default rest-time, and so there was no need to command rest again for the NIGHT-TIME [LILE] in the verses above.

Moreover this 30 hour period of resting and fasting (as calculated earlier) does not align with the EMPHATIC command to REST and FAST on the tenth DAY (IUM) - (SINGULAR) as repeated FIVE TIMES from in Lev 23:27-30.

Lev 23:27 “On the tenth day [not written, but implied] of this seventh month is the Day [[IUM] of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה.

Lev 23:28 “And you do no work on that same day [IUM], for it is the Day [IUM] of Atonement, to make atonement for you before יהוה your ALEIM.

Lev 23:29“For any being who is not afflicted on that same day [IUM], he shall be cut off from his people.

Lev 23:30 “And any being who does any work on that same day [IUM], that being I shall destroy from the midst of his people.

If the SHaBaT (and fast) lasted THIRTY HOURS then the COMMAND would state we are to keep the SHaBaT for at least ONE AND A HALF IUMS (12 X 1.5).

B. If the fasting and resting starts in the middle of (during) the afternoon on the ninth period of light, at say, 3pm and continues to the same time on the 10th period of light then this would be breaking the command to rest and fast on the 10th IUM (ENTIRE period of light) as described in Lev 23:27-30. This is because the fasting and resting would stop three hours before sunset.

C. If the fasting and resting starts at the end of the afternoon on the ninth period of light-time (IUM), i.e. at sunset of the ninth day, and ended 24 hours later, at sunset on the tenth IUM, then the SHaBaT would last for 24 hours. This is longer than necessary (in this scenario) because the command is to fast and rest for ONE IUM, that is ONE PERIOD OF DAYLIGHT, in this scenario, that is 12 HOURS.

Conclusion about Scenario 1

Since one ancient Hebrew “day” (IUM) is assumed to be 12 hours, and the command is to fast for ONE IUM, and since all other High SHaBaTs would be only ONE IUM (12 hours long), and since weekly SHaBaT would all be only one IUM (12 hours long) (see Days Start at Sunrise), and since the entire period of an IUM must be fasted and rested on, then, as a result, this verse has possibly been doctored or inserted by scribes.


Scenario 2 – A Day is 24 Hours Long, Starting at Sunset

Lev 23:32
It is a SHaBaT of rest to you,
and you shall afflict your beings.
On the ninth PERIOD OF 24 HOURS THAT STARTS AT SUNSET
of the month
at AFTERNOON,
from AFTERNOON to AFTERNOON,
you observe your SHaBaT.

A. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is IGNORED, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunset), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset (as per ancient Hebrew and other scriptural definition), and if both afternoons are included (of “day” 9 and “day” 10) in the SHaBaT (rest and fast), then this rest and fast would last for 30 HOURS.

Again, this exceeds a 24-hour modern day, and exceeds (for NO APPARENT reason) all six other annual High SHaBaTs, which would all be, in this scenario 24 hours long.

B. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is ignored, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunset), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset, and fasting and resting starts in the middle of the afternoon of (24 hour) day 9, say, at 3pm, and ends in the middle of the afternoon of (24 hour day) 10, say, at 3pm, then this fast and rest (SHaBaT) would last for 24 HOURS. However this would mean that the tenth (24 hour day, that started at sunset) was not fasted in its entirety because its culmination of 3pm is approximately three hours earlier than a 6 pm sunset. This would mean the person would NOT BE KEEPING the command to keep the SHaBaT for the entire of the tenth “day”.

C. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is ignored, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunset), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset, and fasting and resting starts at the end of the afternoon of (24 hour) day 9, and finishes at the end of the afternoon of (24 hour day) 10, then this fast and rest (SHaBaT) would last for 24 HOURS. However this would mean that the TENTH (24 hour day, that started at sunset) had actually started when the fasting and resting had COMMENCED thereby COMPLETELY NULLIFYING “command” to start the fast “at” the afternoon of the NINTH of the month in Lev 23:32.

Conclusion about Scenario 2

Having a day of 24 hours starting at sunset causes scripTURE to CONTRADICT and NULLIFY itself. Fasting and resting for longer than 24 hours (30 HOURS) is longer than even a MODERN day, and actually equates to 1.25 (ONE AND A QUARTER) 24-hour days. This is GREATER than the ONE day of resting and fasting COMMANDED REPETITIVELY in Lev 23:27-30.

In addition, the commonly used Hebrew phrase for SUNSET should have been used in Lev 23:32 instead of “afternoon” (ORaB) IF the fasting and resting (and hence “day”) commenced at SUNSET.


Scenario 3 – A Day is 24-Hours Long, Starting at Sunrise

Lev 23:32
It is a SHaBaT of rest to you,
and you shall afflict your beings.
On the ninth PERIOD OF 24 HOURS THAT STARTS AT SUNRISE
of the month at AFTERNOON,
from AFTERNOON to AFTERNOON,
you observe your SHaBaT.

A. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is ignored, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunrise), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset, and if both afternoons are included (of “day” 9 and “day” 10), then this fast and rest (SHaBaT) would last for lasts for 30 HOURS. This exceeds a 24-hour modern day and exceeds all (for no apparent reason) six other annual High SHaBaTs.

B. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is ignored, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunrise), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset, and fasting and resting starts in the middle of the afternoon of (24 hour) day 9, say, at 3pm, and ends in the middle of the afternoon of (24 hour day) 10, say, at 3pm, then this fast and rest (SHaBaT) would last for 24 HOURS. However this would mean that the tenth (24 hour day, that started at sunset) was not fasted in its entirety because its culmination of 3pm is approximately 15 hours earlier than a 6 am sunrise at the end of the tenth (24 hour) day. Thus the COMMAND to fast and rest on the tenth “day” WOULD NOT BE KEPT.

C. If the ancient Hebrew meaning of the word “IUM” and its usual meaning throughout the scripTUREs is ignored, and one insists that a day is 24 hours (starting at sunrise), and the afternoon starts just after midday and lasts until sunset, and fasting and resting starts at the end of the afternoon of (24 hour) day 9, and finishes at the end of the afternoon of (24 hour day) 10, then this fast and rest (SHaBaT) would last for 24 HOURS. However this would mean that the entirely of the tenth (24 hour) day was not fasted and rested in for its entirety as the fast and rest would finish half way through “day” ten, thus NULLIFYING the EMPHATIC and REPEATED command to rest and fast on the “TENTH DAY” in Lev 23:27-30.

Conclusion about Scenario 3

Having a day of 24 hours starting at sunrise causes scripTURE to CONTRADICT and NULLIFY itself. Fasting and resting for longer than 24 hours (30 HOURS) is longer than even a MODERN day, and actually equates to 1.25 (ONE AND A QUARTER) 24-hour days. This is GREATER than the ONE day of resting and fasting commanded repetitively in Lev 23:27-30.


Conclusion

IUM KIPUR starts at SUNRISE of the TENTH period of LIGHT in the seventh month, and lasts for 12 HOURS. Leviticus 23:32 does not teach a 12 HOUR DAY, NOR A 24 HOUR DAY. In fact ALL IT DOES is cause scripTURE to contradict and/or nullify itself. It is therefore possibly DODGY.

No matter how long we view a day, and no matter when this day starts, we cannot make much sense of this "scripTURE" at all.

The ONLY WAY we could make ANY sense of this verse is if we COMPLETELY IGNORE all of the following:

1) The ancient Hebrew pictographic meaning of the word IUM (DAY-LIGHT, “working and attaching mightily”, “hot”.)

2) The ancient Hebrew pictographic meaning of the word ORaB (AFTERNOON).

3) The fact that there is no other word in Hebrew that means “afternoon” except for ORaB.

4) The usual, most common meaning of the word IUM in scripTURE as only DAYLIGHT HOURS.

5) The usual, most common meaning of the word ORaB in scripTURE as only the AFTERNOON (it is not “sunset” - the phrase for “SUNSET” is BA-E-SHaMaSH” (H 935, H8121).)

6) The fact that ALL OTHER HIGH SHaBaTs are no most certainly NO LONGER than 24 HOURS LONG and there is no good reason why the Day of Atonement should be any different. There are SIX other High SHaBaTs and they are all ONE IUM long. There would have to be a good reason, and certainly MORE THAN JUST ONE SCRIPTURE why this fasting and resting lasted so LONG. All other High SHaBATs have MORE THAN ONE VERSE of scripture to clarify its LENGTH.

It is more likely that the OPPOSITE would have to be true: that the fasting should be limited to LESS TIME rather than more. 12 HOURS would be a FAR BETTER length of time to fast for because babies require suckling, little children need frequent meals and malnutritioned (sick) people need nutrients.

Moreover, the ancient Hebrew pictographic meaning of LILE (night-time/darkness) is "NO WORK, NO EXERTION". This means all work has to be done in the IUM (daylight hours). We should FAST and CEASE FROM WORK (REST) throughout the tenth period of LIGHT because our FUTURE JUDGEMENT judgement will take place DURING THE DAY-TIME, NOT THE NIGHT-TIME, when WORK is normally undertaken.

ALL will be revealed IN THE LIGHT. Our deeds will be assessed in PLAIN VIEW. Judging CANNOT BE DONE AT NIGHT, when there is no light to shed on our deeds. Nighttime (LILE) is by default rest-time so no judging will be occurring during the tenth night of the new moon/month (nor the nighttime after the ninth IUM).

We only need to be sober (through fasting) and alert and repentant (through resting) because we will ONE DAY BE JUDGED over a period of 12 hours of daylight. We do not need to fast and rest from work when we will not be ONE DAY JUDGED.


The Scribes Have Doctored This Scripture

The book ''Supplementary Studies in the Calendars of Ancient Israel" by Julian Morgenstern (Former President of the Hebrew Union College), 1935, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, said in p 25:

''LEV.23.32b, manifestly a very late addition to the legislation for Yom Yippur,which itself, as we have seen, was none too early, dates the celebration or this holy day with exact precision, "on the ninth of the month, at evening,from evening to evening. "Now it is certain that this did not mean to imply at all that the festival was actually celebrated on the ninth day of the month, for the statement is explicit, that it was to be observed upon the tenth, As we have seen, the original Yom Kippur legislation dealt with a day which extended from morning to morning .v.32b manifestly seeks to fix the exact period of festival according to the new system of reckoning the day".


Reasons Why the Scribes Might Have Doctored This Scripture

The afternoon (ORaB) of the ninth day was most probably a TIME OF PREPARATION for the Day of Atonement.

This was just as there was a day of preparation the day before the weekly SHaBaT, and before other High annual SHaBaTs by the time of IEUESHUO

Mat 27:62 On the next day, WHICH WAS AFTER THE PREPARATION, the chief priests and Pharisees gathered together to Pilate,

Mar 15:42 And when evening had come, because it was the PREPARATION DAY, that is, the day before the SHaBaT,

Luk 23:54 And it was PREPARATION DAY, and the SHaBaT was approaching.

Joh 19:14 And it was the PREPARATION DAY of the PASSOVER WEEK, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the IEUEDIM, “See your Sovereign!”

Joh 19:31 Therefore, since it was the PREPARATION DAY, that the bodies should not remain on the stake on the SHaBaT – for THAT SHaBaT WAS A HIGH ONE – the IEUEDIM asked Pilate to have their legs broken, and that they be taken away.

Joh 19:42 There, then, because of the PREPARATION DAY of the IEUEDIM, they laid IEUESHUO, because the tomb was near.

Joseph of Arimathea found himself in this PERIOD OF PREPARATION for the SHaBaT (the afternoon before the SHaBaT day began). Joseph knew that the body of IEUESHUO could not be left hanging overnight according to the Law of IEUE (Deut. 21:22-23; Josh. 8:29; Josh. 10:26-27). Thus, he was forced to prepare the body of IEUESHUO for burial as quickly as possible.

The practice of preparing for the SHaBaT the afternoon before a SHaBaT can be traced back to at least the time of NaHaMIEUE (Nehemiah) (Neh. 13:15-22). NaHaMIEUE forbade the gates of IRUSHaLIM (Jerusalem) to remain open to merchants after it had grown dark NOT because the SHaBaT began at SUNSET, but because there should be a due time of preparation in the AFTERNOON before the SHaBaT was to begin (on the following morning). NaHaMIEUE had ordered the gates be shut just after sunset (at night) and they were not to be opened "until the sun was hot", i.e. the IUM started on the SHaBaT IUM (day), and he did not want the SHaBaT profaned by merchants carrying in their wares and selling on the day of rest. The merchants undoubtedly traveled on the sixth day and arrived toward the end of the day (in the afternoon), so NaHaMIEUE simply shut the gates on them.

Around the time of NaHaMIEUE there were some paganised/Babalonianised IEUEDIM (Jews) who also returned to Canaan from exile. As soon as they could they no doubt started to change this oral “FENCE” law into a law of TURE (Torah). This new “written law” (of evening to evening (ORaB to ORaB/afternoon to afternoon) days then permeated into a string of other scripTUREs. A perfect example of this flow on effect can be seen in the BaRaASHIT (Genesis) account where we see a reversed order of “evening (afternoon) then morning”, when it should say “morning then evening (afternoon)”.


The Danger in Latching on from One System to Another

A lot of people who have come out from Christianity who were once honouring the first day of the week rather than the seventh, now look to the State of Israel and IEUEDIM (Jews) because the ex-Christians think these IEUEDIM are keeping, and have preserved the First Covenant to the letter.

However, what we really find is that many IEUEDIM of today have their own traditions which, according to Talmud, are above scripTURE. There are some traditions within Judaism that are inherited from pagan nations that they were assimilated into during the exile in Babylon.

Some of these traditions include: naming months after false “gods” (Tammuz, Nisan, Siwan); the replacement of the Paleo Hebrew alphabet with Elephantine Aramaic, Nabataean Aramaic, Palmyrenean Aramaic, Qumran Hebrew and finally the square script modern Hebrew alphabet; and last but not least the MOST EVIL practise of replacing the Name of IEUE with alternatives like “Adonai”, Ha Shem, Most High, etc. If they had the cheek to add unnecessary and perverted vowel-pointings on IEUE’s Name then we cannot rule out them swapping the position of two words, doctoring or inserting a few scripTUREs throughout the TURE.

IEUESHUO himself saved some of His most scathing rebukes for the “experts” in the TURE (Torah).

ScripTURE declares itself that a certain number of scribes of IEUEDIM have worked falsehood.

Jer 8:8 “How do you say, ‘We are wise, and the TURE of IEUE with us’? But look, THE FALSE PEN OF THE SCRIBE HAS WORKED FALSEHOOD.

Jer 23:16 Thus said IEUE of hosts, “Do not listen to the words of the prophets who prophesy to you, they lead you astray. THEY SPEAK A VISION OF THEIR OWN HEART, NOT FROM THE MOUTH OF IEUE.

It should come as no surprise therefore that these Pharisees/Sopherim have not been able to resist the temptation to change the written word of IEUE to match their oral laws.
Comment by James Trimm on September 12, 2009 at 1:12pm
In Gen. 1 the phrase "evening and morning" is given as an actual description of each of the seven days of the week, so we have a clear case here where 24 hour calendar days are being defined as passing in the order evening then morning. We do not have calendar days being defined in the other passages which mentioned "morning and evening" etc.

Also the word for day in Hebrew is YOM not IUM. I think I have shown clearly that it can refer to various lengths of time, commonly either "daylight"/"daytime" and "a 24 hour calendar day".
Comment by Mikha El on September 12, 2009 at 9:15pm
QUOTE RICK:

At the risk of being called a ( grade school Benjamite ) again . I'll let scripture answer -Isiah chapter 48. Efrayim is blown by many winds of Doctrine .
Dr. Trimm has defined Yom and Machar , yet his discourse is not acceptable ? I am just a student , with much to learn , so I guess it's ok for you to call me a grade school Benjamite, in fact I like it .Did not Shaul say he was Benjamite ( Acts 13:21) and a Pharisee ? so it would seem I share good company .
Baruch Ha Shem YahWeh R.T.
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Since you have again elected to present another insult before commenting on the material, I am beginning to question your walk also. Do you intend to turn this into an arbitrary verse search to accuse the other of?
If instead of first berating another you would address the facts of the discussion you will not reap rebuke be it ever so slight. Kind of like the pot calling the kettle black wouldn’t you think?

Why does the world always try to prove our Brother Judah wrong ? R.T.


I am quite well aware of Sha’ul’s background thank you. Anyone who states that they know everything is either kidding himself or herself or lying. We are all students. STICK TO THE STUDY AND LEAVE OFF THE INSULTS.

Regarding the Hebrew words “Yom” and “Machar” you are mentioning; Rabbi Trimm is of the opinion that both words are “ambiguous”. I do not hold entirely to that theory. I have asked him to post verses that prove his point, obviously he is to busy at the moment.
Perhaps you would like to?

mikha El
Comment by Mikha El on September 12, 2009 at 9:16pm
Dr. Trimm,

Please comment on this section of a previous post:

However, the phrase, "the morning and the evening", (or similar expressions) occurs in Ex. 18:13,13; 21, 1 Sam. 17:16; 1 Chron. 16:40; 2 Chron. 2:4; 2 Chron. 13:11; 2 Chron. 31:3; Ezra 3:3; Job 4:20; Ps. 65:8; Is. 21:12; Is. 28:19; and Acts 28:23.

c. It is rather obvious that neither "the evening and the morning" nor "the morning and the evening" can specifically indicate the time in which a day begins without contradicting one another.
Comment by Mikha El on September 13, 2009 at 8:25pm
Rick,

That's fine if you disagree with it, but state valid reasons. "Aligning with Judah" can be taken various ways depending on whom one considers the true "Judah" to be. I can assure you it is not mainline Judaism, but that's a topic for another thread. Following any "whim" that comes along because it bucks tradition and not scripture can be a dangerous motive in my opinion. Wouldn't you be better off proving it to yourself one way or another, as I am doing?

Rick, or anyone....answer this for me please....

We have accounts in Matt:
Mat 27:45 And from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land, until the ninth hour.
Mat 27:46 And about the ninth hour יהושע cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Ěli, Ěli, lemah sheḇaqtani?” that is, “My Ěl, My Ěl, why have You forsaken Me?”

In Mark:
Mar 15:33 And when the sixth hour came, darkness came over all the land until the ninth hour.

In Luke:
Luk 23:44 And it was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over all the land, until the ninth hour.

And in John:
Joh 19:39 And Naḵdimon, who at first came to יהושע by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds.
Joh 19:40 Then they took the body of יהושע, and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as was the habit of the Yehuḏim for burial.

If evening reckoning is correct, Yeshua was impaled sometime around midnight or an hour or 2 past. This would be the "6th hour". The "9th hour" would then be in the wee hours of the morning. Why in the world then would it have been necessary to mention the sun was darkened? Isn't it quite obvious the people of that time began there tracking of time from dawn. Doesn't this make a bit more sense?

Furthermore, why was work done after nightfall as we are told in John? Again, it's quite obvious when we read things objectively. It was done because they knew the Sabbath didn't start until daybreak. We are told to be children of the light...

Eph 5:8 For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Master. Walk as children of light – (Granted the word "light" is used as an allegory for Toraht. Even an allegory has to have literal meaning.)

The more I look into this, the more I am becoming convinced. I'm 95% there. Still looking for more scholarly opinions...
Comment by Shawn on September 13, 2009 at 9:27pm
HAHAHA! Mikha El closes with Eph 5:8 "you were once darkness, but now you are light..."

Which mentions that darkness comes first and then now you are light.
Comment by Shawn on September 13, 2009 at 9:28pm
Sorry I'm not laughing at you just that was real funny
Comment by Mikha El on September 13, 2009 at 9:32pm
If the ISR seems "funny" to you... so be it. I assume you have something "scholarly" to add to the discussion?
Comment by Shawn on September 13, 2009 at 10:16pm
Nah Ill just sit back on this one...I got friends who do lunar shabbat, so day time shabbat guys dont suprise me. I am certain this wont be the last wild idea Ephraim comes up with on shabbat.
Comment by James Trimm on September 14, 2009 at 1:51pm
The Sixth Hour and Ninth hour etc. have special meanings, they were not counting hours of a 24 hour day they were a count of daylight hours. It is from this past that we ended up with a system of two 12 hour periods making up a day. Although today they are midnight to noon and noon to midnight, in ancient times they were 12 hours of daytime and 12 hours of nighttime.

Notice in Ps. 55:17 the three times of prayer are given in the order: Evening, Morning, Noon.

Not sure what you mean about "work done after nightfall as we are told in John, if you are specific as to wh owas doing what work in what context, I can respond.

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