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Yom HaKippurim, Celebration, and Proof of the Dawn to Dawn Day.

Yom HaKippurim, Celebration, and Proof of the Dawn to Dawn Day.
© Chris Schaefer 2014

Wayiqra/Leveticus 23:26-32

26 And YHWH spoke to Musa, saying,

27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month

there shall be Yom Kippurim:  it shall be a miqra

kodesh3 to you; 

and you shall AFFLICT YOUR SOULS, 

andoffer an offering made by fire to YHWH.

28 And you shall do no work in that same day:4

for it is a Yom Kippurim (Day of Atonements), to make

kapporah5 for you before YHWH Your POWER.

29 For whatsoeverSOUL it be that shall not be

AFFLICTED in that same day, he shall be cut off from

among his people.

30 And whatsoever soul it be that does any work in

that same day, the same soul will I destroy from

among his people.2

31 You shall do no manner of work: it shall be a

statute forever3 throughout your generations in all

your dwellings.

32 It shall be to you A set-apart SABBATH and you

shall AFFLICT YOUR SOULS:
in the NINTH DAY OF THE MONTH AT EVENING,
FROM EVENING TO EVENING
shall you CELEBRATE YOUR SABBATH.

What can be gleaned from this passage?
1. Evening IS darkness.  The darkness of EVENING is identified with the NUMBER OF A DAY, in this case, the DAY OF the 9th.  Therefore the meaning of DAY  in verse 32 is NOT merely “daytime”, but rather IS a FULL 24 hours.

2. The Afflicting of one’s soul begins at the beginning of EVENING on the NINTH on the 7th month.

3.Because EVENING BEGINS while it is still the NINTH, therefore the day of the 10th can NOT begin at sunset or dark, because EVENING is still on the Ninth.  Thus the Beginning of the 10th starts after the EVENING of the 9th HAS ENDED-- presumably when dark ends on DAWN on the 10th.

4. Since the AFFLICTING OF ONE’S soul goes from EVENING TO EVEINING, then it is safe to say that said AFFLICTION is to last at least 24 hours.  

5. The AFFLICTING OF ONE’S SOUL is an IDIOM that apparently the people already understood as a full fast, but this IDIOM is not defined in the Torah.

6. The people are to CELEBRATE Yom HaKippurim.  How can one CELEBRATE, if one is AFFLICTING One’s Soul?  Granted, Yahusha said we should not difigure our facess and deliberately look all gloomy when fasting, but CELEBRATING is a whole different.

7. In summation, the fast begins approximately at the beginning of the last third of the day of the 9th and the fast ends after the first two thirds of the day of the 10th have concluded.  Then there still remains the EVENING of the 10th whith which to CELEBRATE.  We know that the EVENING of the 10th is PART of the full day because the EVENING of the 9th is identified WITH THE 9th.  So therefore to be consistent, then the EVENING OF the 10th must be identified with the full day OF the 10th.

8. Yom Hakippurim is identified as a Sabbath.  Not necessarily the weekly Sabbath, but a MOED Sabbath.

So since Scripture interprets Scripture, where can we get a solid definition of AFFLICTING ONE’S SOUL?

Yeshayahu/Isaiah 58-- the WHOLE chapter must be viewed to get the WHOLE context.

1 Cry aloud, spare not, lift up your voice like a

shofar, and show my people their transgression, and

the house of Yaqub their transgressions.

2 Yet they seek me daily, and delight to know my

ways, as a nation that did right-ruling, and forsook

not the ordinance of their Elohim: they ask of me the

ordinances of justice; they take delight in

approaching to Elohim.

3 Therefore have we FASTED, say they, and you see

not? Therefore have we AFFLICTED OUR SOUL, and you

took no knowledge? Behold, in the day of your FAST

you find pleasure, and exact all your labours.

4 Behold, you FAST for strife and debate, and to

smite with the fist of wickedness: you shall not FAST

as you do THIS day, to make your voice to be heard

on high.

5 Is it such a FAST  that I have CHOSEN? A DAY for a

man to AFFLICT HIS SOUL? Is it to bow down his head as

a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under

him? will you call this a FAST and an acceptable DAY

to YHWH?

6 Is not this the FAST that I have chosen? To loose

the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy

burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that

you break every yoke?

7 Is it not to GIVE YOUR BREAD TO THE HUNGRY,

and that you bring the poor that are cast out

to your house? When you see the naked, that you

cover him; and that you hide not yourself from your

own flesh?

8 Then shall your LIGHT BREAK FORTH AS THE MORNING,

and your health shall spring forth speedily: and your

right-ruling shall go before you; the esteem of YHWH

shall be your rear guard.

9 Then shall you call, and YHWH shall answer; you

shall cry, and he shall say, Here I am. If you take

away from the midst of you the yoke, the putting forth

of the finger, and speaking vanity;

10 And if you DRAW OUT YOUR SOUL TO THE HUNGRY, and

SATISFY THE AFFLICTED SOUL; then shall your light rise in

obscurity, and your DARKNESS AS THE NOONDAY:

11 And YHWH shall guide you continually, and

satisfy your soul in drought, and make fat your

bones: and you shall be like a watered garden, and

like a spring of mayim, whose waters fail not.

12 And they that shall be of you shall build the old

waste places: you shall raise up the foundations of

many generations; and you shall be called, The

repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell

in.

13 If you turn away your foot from THE SABBATH,

from doing your pleasure on my Set-Apart DAY; and

call the Sabbath a DELIGHT, the Set-Apart of YHWH,

honorable; and shall respect him, not doing your own

ways, nor finding your own pleasure, nor speaking

your own words:

14 Then shall you delight yourself in YHWH; and I

will cause you to ride upon the high places of the

earth, and feed you with the heritage of Yaqub your

father: for the mouth of YHWH has spoken it.

What can we glean from this passage?
1. In verses 3, 5, and 10 that AFFLICTING ONE’S SOUL is defined as A FAST. (this definition of AFFLICTING ONE’S SOUL cannot be found anywhere else).

2. In verse 5, the fast is identified as a FAST  that YHWH has CHOSEN.  While there were other days that YHWH called for a fast during the exile, those were not necessarily identified as a Sabbath.  Here in this chapter, this FAST is identified AS A SABBATH.  Since there are no other moedim or weekly Sabbaths which are chosen to be a fast, then this day in Yeshayahu 58 MUST BE YOM HAKIPPURIM.(see Wayiqra/Leveticus 23)

3. The people being spoken to in verses 7 and 10 are commanded to FEED the HUNGRY.  It is safe to say that the hungry people begin WITHIN the commonwealth of Israel.  To be consistent with other passages in Scripture about the poor and hungry, these verses primarily refer to those within Yisrael- YHWH is not commanding the people to go out to the foreign nations to feed people who have not joined themselves with Yisrael.

4. YHWH would NOT be telling the people to feed the poor in Yisrael DURING DAYLIGHT hours during Yom HaKippurim because that would be leading the poor Yisraelites astray-- the 24 hour fast is for everyone rich and poor alike.

5. If this is a fast (and it is), then EVERYONE in Yeshayahu is hungry, not just the poor.  What do hungry people do after a fast is concluded?  They EAT!  Do poor people have enough to EAT?  No.  So if after a fast has concluded, and tthose who have plenty are eating.  It is no wonder that it is displeasing to YHWH that those with plenty AREN’T SHARING THEIR FOOD WITH THE POOR, beause the poor have just finished thier fast, and they need to eat too!

6. As we have seen in Wayiqra/Leveticus 23:32, Yom HaKippurim is called a CELEBRATION.  What do people do at a CELEBRATION?  They EAT.  Rich or poor, it should not matter,  EVERYONE SHOULD EAT-- Rich, Middle Class, and Poor TOGETHER!  Socioeconomic status should exclude NOBODY  from this CELEBRATION WHICH INCLUDES EATING

7. In verse 10, the feeding of the hungry is equated with the time of darkness.  So this buttresses the idea that the fast concludes at the begenning of evening/darkness (as per Wayiqura 23:32).  So YHWH is saying that when the well-to-do SHARE their MEAL with the poor when the Yom HaKippurim FAST has concluded at DARK, then that ACTION of SHARING will SHINE LIKE THE NOONDAY at DARK.
8. Messianics are in error to presume that Yeshayahu 58:13 is talking about ALL weekly Sabbaths, because  IF verse 13 is viewed in the WHOLE context of the whole chapter of Yeshayahu/Isaiah 58,  it becomes clear that this is about a SPECIAL Sabbath: Yom HaKippurim.

9. Yeshayahu/Isaiah 58 taken together with Wayiqura/Leveticus 23:26-32 conclusively proves that the day beings at dawn and concludes the following dawn.  The Yom Kippurim FAST begins on approximatly the remaining third the 9th of the 7th month and concludes at the completion of the beginning two thirds of the 10th of the month, then the CELEBRATION of Yom HaKippurim (complete with feasting/eating) begins at the last third of the 10th of the month.

10.  Thus there are two meanings of day:  daytime/daylight and a full 24 hour day.  There are passages of Scripture which talk about day as daytime/daylight, and as we’ve seen in Wayiqra/Leveticus 23:26-32 and Yeshayahu 58, there are other passages that refer to a day as a 24 hour period.  Context determines the meaning.

Views: 97

Comment by James Trimm on January 28, 2014 at 12:39pm

YOM in Hebrew can mean "day" in the sense of a 24 hour day, or day in the sense of "daytime".

MACHAR can refer either to the next 24 hour day, or the next daylight.

Eveneing to Evening reckoning is clear:

Lev 23:32 It shall be to you a sabbath of solemn
rest, and you shall afflict your souls;
on the ninth day of the month at evening,
from evening to evening, you shall
celebrate your sabbath.

Exod 12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day
of the month at evening, you shall eat
unleavened bread, until the twenty-first
day of the month at evening.

A Hebrew day ends with the beginning of EREV (Evening) as shown in Dt.
21:22-23 & Joshua 8:29 where we are told that a man hanged on a tree must
not stay over night but be removed that day (Dt. 21:22-23) so the King of
Ai was hanged and remained "until EREV" (Joshua 8:29).

Also

It has come to my attention that Luke 23:54 was sited as evidence for morning to morning reckoning. The text in question cannot support such a claim. Let me explain why:

Luke 23:54 says in the Aramaic:

"And it was the day of preparation and the Sabbath was *dawning* [NOGAH] (Strong's Aramaic #5053)"

Lets look at this Aramaic word NOGAH:

According to Charles Cutler Torrey in his monumental work "Our Translated Gospels" this word can mean either "as it dawned" or "and before the dawn" (p. 21)

Torrey elaborates on p. 25:

[NOGAH] designates ordinarily the time between the close (sunset) of one day and the dawn of the next day, and may apply either to the entire time or to any part of it.... the time intended could equally well be midnight, or any hour before or after it. The same idiom precisely, using the same word... is found in classical Syriac. In the Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, ed. Wright, p. 22, line 9, it designates the whole "night between Friday and Saturday." In Bedjan's Acta Mart. et Sanct., IV, 579 f., the time is "at midnight"; ibid., 629, "at the eleventh hour of the night."
(Our Translated Gospels by Charles Cutler Torrey; 1936; p. 25)
(For those who do not know Syriac is an Aramaic dialect.)

Professor Marcus Jastrow in his *Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Babli, Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature* (p. 873) gives one of the definitions of NOGAH as "to get dark, to be belated." He gives these examples of this usage of NOGAH in the Aramaic of the Talmud:

"*night set in* (NOGAH), and no food was brought to them."
(b.Taan. 24a)

"the reason why I am *late* (NOGAH)"
(b.Shabb. 10a)

So while the word NOGAH is commonly translated as "dawn" it can also refer to anytime after it gets dark in the evening as well.


In Gen. 1 the phrase "evening and morning" is given as an actual description of each of the seven days of the week, so we have a clear case here where 24 hour calendar days are being defined as passing in the order evening then morning. We do not have calendar days being defined in the other passages which mentioned "morning and evening" etc.

Also the word for day in Hebrew is YOM not IUM. I think I have shown clearly that it can refer to various lengths of time, commonly either "daylight"/"daytime" and "a 24 hour calendar day".


Neh 13:15  In those days I saw in Yahudah those treading wine presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and loading donkeys with wine, grapes, and figs, and all kinds of burdens, which they brought into Yerushalayim on the Sabbath day. So I warned them on the day they sold food.
Neh 13:16  And men of Tsor dwelt there, bringing in fish and all kinds of goods, and sold them on the Sabbath to the children of Yahudah, and in Yerushalayim.
Neh 13:17  Then I contended with the nobles of Yahudah, and said to them, ‘What evil matter is this that you are doing, profaning the Sabbath day?
Neh 13:18  ‘Did not your fathers do the same so that our Elohim brought all this evil on us and on this city? Yet you bring added wrath on Yisra’ĕl by profaning the Sabbath.’
Neh 13:19  And it came to be, at the gates of Yerushalayim, as it began to be dark before the Sabbath, that I commanded the gates to be shut, and commanded that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath. And I stationed some of my servants at the gates, so that no burdens would be brought in on the Sabbath day.
Neh 13:20  And the merchants and sellers of all kinds of wares spent the night outside Yerushalayim once or twice,
Neh 13:21  and I warned them, and said to them, ‘Why do you spend the night around the wall? If you do so again, I lay hands on you!’ From that time on they came no more on the Sabbath.”

"when the sun was setting" (Lk. 4:40) = "when evening came, when the sun had set" (Mk. 1:32) then "early in the morning" (Mk. 1:35) is "while still dark" (Mk. 1:35) is described as "when day came" (Lk. 4:42). This the day had begun before sunrise.

Likewise Miriam of Magdala came to the tomb "while it was still dark" but this was already "the first day of the week" (Jn. 20:1).  Again, the day had begun before sunrise.


Acts 20:7 is a great example.

"And on the first day of the week. the taught ones having gathered together to break bread, Shaul intended to depart the next day, was reasoning with them and was extending the word till midnight."
(Acts 20:7 ISR)

"And on the first day of the week, when we were assembled to break bread, Paul spoke with them, because the next day, he was ready to depart: and he continued to speak until the middle of the night."
(Acts 20:7 HRV)

Now this is a passage Sunday keepers have tried to use to "prove" that Paul was keeping a Sunday (First day) Sabbath. However, if this was a Sunday morning Church service, then Paul really was long winded when his teaching "extended... until midnight". Actuallu this was an evening Havdalah meeting on what we call Saturday night which on the Hebrew calendar is "on the first day of the week". Notice that Paul intended to depart "the next day" which referred not to the next calendar day (Monday) but to the "next daytime" (Sunday Morning) because he had rested on the Sabbath, and was sleeping by night, and would leave in the morning. This is also a great example of the meaning of MACHAR "the next day" which in Hebraic thought can refer either to the next calendar day, or the next daytime

Comment by Mikha El on February 1, 2014 at 11:23am

None of the above "proves" evening to evening reckoning IMO. I don't have the desire to present the obvious.

To this day I have never heard anyone explain, IF using proper hermeneutics ...which entails NOT changing the context to suit our preconceived ideas , how we are supposed to "work 6 yoms and rest one yom"?  Which is it, work 6 24 hour periods... hardly! I work 6 ~12 hour yom's and rest ~one 12 hour yom.

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