May I briefly let you know my thoughts on this (being aware that I don't have the knowledge you possess).
Though Paul refers to Hosea, he alludes to the grafting in of literal Gentiles in my opinion, comparable to the "mixed multitude" in EX 12:38 (not just Ephraimites).
EZE 37 was fulfilled in 1948 when representatives of all 12 Tribes were united and brought back in their homeland - the Diaspora didn't consist of Judah only, but also of Ten-Tribed Israelites (that the 10 Tribes never returned is a myth; many returned together with Judah from Babylon/Medo-Persia, and a remnant was present at Yeshua's crucifixion as per EX 12:6, 47).
JER 31:31-33 which is related to the topic, prophesies the B'rit Hadasha. The covenant was renewed for the first time at Shavuot in 31 AD when representatives of all 12 Tribes (120 talmidim) received God's Spirit & Torah into their hearts (evidenced by speaking in tongues). For the next 3 1/2 years, till Stephen's death, the renewed covenant was only confirmed to many, viz. to the Jews (DAN 9:27); afterwards also to the Samaritans & Gentiles such as Cornelius.
Just to give an example of that "grafting in" - those Gentiles who had become Israelites in the sight of God (ROM 2:28-29), had to learn to observe the Torah of course - nothing to do with replacement theology.
Hope that makes sense.
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